France's global nuclear fusion device a puzzle of huge parts

A hugely ambitious project to replicate the energy of the sun is entering a critical phase, as scientists and technicians in southern France begin assembling giant parts of a nuclear fusion device, an international experiment ...

Get excited by neural networks

Researchers at the Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo (UTokyo-IIS), used artificial intelligence to rapidly infer the excited state of electrons in materials. This work can help material scientists study ...

Two vital buffers against climate change are just offshore

A new study finds that about 31 million people worldwide live in coastal regions that are "highly vulnerable" to future tropical storms and sea-level rise driven by climate change. In some of those regions, however, powerful ...

Michigan flood displaces thousands, threatens Superfund site

Floodwaters surging through Central Michigan on Wednesday were mixing with containment ponds at a Dow Chemical Co. plant and could displace sediment from a downstream Superfund site, though the company said there was no risk ...

The exceptional origin of EUV light in hot tin plasma

Extreme ultraviolet light (EUV light) does not naturally occur on Earth, but it can be produced. In nanolithography machines, EUV light is generated using an immensely hot tin plasma. Researchers at ARCNL, in close collaboration ...

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Energy level

A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound, confined spatially, can only take on certain discrete values of energy, as opposed to classical particles, which can have any energy. These values are called energy levels. The term is most commonly used for the energy levels of electrons in atoms or molecules, which are bound by the electric field of the nucleus. The energy spectrum of a system with energy levels is said to be quantized.

If the potential energy is set to zero at infinity, the usual convention, then bound electron states have negative potential energy.

Energy levels are said to be degenerate, if the same energy level is obtained by more than one quantum mechanical state. They are then called degenerate energy levels.

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