Researchers show heparan sulfate adjusts functions of growth factor proteins

May 04, 2011

When the human genome project produced a map of human genes, the number of genes in humans turned out to be relatively small, approximately the same number as in primitive nematode worms. The difference in complexity between human and primitive organisms results from the ways in which the functions of genes are elaborated, rather from just the number of genes. Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) researchers are showing how heparan sulfate, a carbohydrate that is expressed on the surface of all human cells, adjusts the functions of growth factor proteins. These findings currently appear on-line in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.

Each cell responds to signals in the form of growth factor proteins that bind to cell surfaces. "The heparan sulfate on each cell helps the growth factor proteins connect with a that is necessary for the signaling to occur," explained Joseph Zaia, PhD, an associate professor of Biochemistry at BUSM. Cells can change the way they respond to growth factors by altering the structure of the heparan sulfate on their surfaces.

Under the direction of Zaia, researchers from BUSM's department of Biochemistry have produced a new picture of the structure of the heparan sulfate and how it interacts with growth factor proteins. These new results demonstrate that growth factors home into regions of the heparan sulfate chains known as non-reducing ends. "Such binding of growth factors to the non-reducing ends of heparan sulfate chains may be a general means whereby normal cell growth is maintained. Conversely, a breakdown in such signaling may contribute to abnormal cell growth," he added.

Explore further: The most complete review of the peptide behind Alzheimer's

Related Stories

New inhibitor has potential as cancer drug

Oct 22, 2007

Laboratory experiments have previously shown that cancer cells overproduce an enzyme, heparanase, which splits the body’s own polysaccharide heparan sulfate into shorter fragments. The amount of enzyme is related to the ...

A new role of glypican-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma

Aug 02, 2010

A study group from Japan analyzed the association of glypican-3 (GPC3) expression with Wnt and other growth signaling molecules in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). They found altered expressions of various matrix metalloproteinases ...

Recommended for you

SANS: a unique technique to look inside plants' leaves

Mar 26, 2015

Plants' leaves capture the sunlight and convert it into the energy used to produce nutrients for their activities. This process is accomplished thanks to the presence of the thylakoid membrane system. While ...

Silver shines as antibacterial for medical implants

Mar 24, 2015

There have been growing concerns in the global health care system about the eradication of pathogens in hospitals and other patient-care environments. Overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents has contributed ...

User comments : 0

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.