A new candidate for dark matter and a way to detect it

A new candidate for dark matter and a way to detect it
A simulation of the large-scale structure of the universe with filaments of dark matter in blue and places of galaxy formation in yellow. Dark matter cannot yet be detected directly. UC Davis physicists have proposed a new model to explain it. Credit: Zarija Lukic/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Two theoretical physicists at the University of California, Davis have a new candidate for dark matter, and a possible way to detect it. They presented their work June 6 at the Planck 2019 conference in Granada, Spain and it has been submitted for publication.

Dark is thought to make up just over a quarter of our universe, with most of the rest being even-more mysterious dark energy. It cannot be seen directly, but 's presence can be detected because its gravity determines the shape of distant galaxies and other objects.

Many physicists believe that dark matter is made up of some particle yet to be discovered. For some time, the favorite candidate has been the Weakly Interacting Massive Particle or WIMP. But despite years of effort, WIMPs have so far not shown up in experiments designed to detect them.

"We still don't know what dark matter is," said John Terning, professor of physics at UC Davis and coauthor on the paper. "The primary candidate for a long time was the WIMP, but it looks like that's almost completely ruled out."

An alternative to the WIMP model of dark matter calls for a form of "dark electromagnetism" including "dark photons" and other . Dark photons would have some weak coupling with "regular" photons.

In their new paper, Terning and postdoctoral researcher Christopher Verhaaren add a twist to this idea: a dark magnetic "" that would interact with the dark .

In the macroscopic world, magnets always have two poles, north and south. A monopole is a particle that acts like one end of a magnet. Monopoles are predicted by quantum theory, but have never been observed in an experiment. The scientists suggest that dark monopoles would interact with dark photons and dark electrons in the same way that theory predicts electrons and photons interact with monopoles.

A new way to detect dark matter

And that implies a way to detect these dark particles. The physicist Paul Dirac predicted that an electron moving in a circle near a monopole would pick up a change of phase in its . Because electrons exist as both particles and waves in , the same electron could pass on either side of the monopole and as a result be slightly out of phase on the other side.

This interference pattern, called the Aharonov-Bohm effect, means that an electron passing around a is influenced by it, even if it does not pass through the field itself.

Terning and Verhaaren argue that you could detect a dark monopole because of the way it shifts the phase of electrons as they pass by.

"This is a new type of dark matter but it comes with a new way to look for it as well," Terning said.

Electron beams are relatively easy to come by: electron microscopes were used to demonstrate the Aharonov-Bohm effect in the 1960s, and electron beam technology has improved with time, Terning noted.

Theoretically, dark matter particles are streaming through us all the time. To be detectable in Terning and Verhaaren's model, the monopoles would have to be excited by the Sun. Then they would take about a month to reach Earth, traveling at about a thousandth of the speed of light.

On the other hand, the predicted phase shift is extremely small—smaller than that needed to detect gravity waves, for example. However, Terning noted that when the LIGO gravity wave experiment was first proposed, the technology to make it work did not exist —instead, technology caught up over time.


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NA64 hunts the mysterious dark photon

More information: Detecting Dark Matter with Aharonov-Bohm, arXiv:1906.00014 [hep-ph] arxiv.org/abs/1906.00014
Provided by UC Davis
Citation: A new candidate for dark matter and a way to detect it (2019, June 10) retrieved 24 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-06-candidate-dark.html
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Jun 10, 2019
You do realize that neutronium is far more likely; gas without electrons half the density of hydrogen. Why doesn't anyone come up with an experiment to detect that? That gas is so light that star formation from it might be an exercise in futility meaning between the galactic core to the edge of the spiral there might be a shit load of it. The spirals start at the distance they do due to weakened gravity; without a substance the spirals would fall apart, but the galactic core would not. I say neutronium is the stuff keeping the arms stable, and it would have to be far more abundant then hydrogen which is the "most" abundant gas; errr wrong. The galactic core is basically depressed space-time so nothing is rotating around an object but rather around the geometry created by mass against space-time. Gravity itself is short range, however the blanket of space-time spans the entire galaxy, thus trillions of individual depressions create a slight overall depression moreso for the core.

Jun 10, 2019
From article:
The scientists suggest that dark monopoles would interact with dark photons and dark electrons in the same way that theory predicts electrons and photons interact with monopoles.
Any 'theory' (hypothesis) that 'predicts' magnetic monopoles is ipso facto NOT scientific; because we've been 'searching' for ordinary (non-dark) magnetic monopoles for a century and never found any (not even the slightest hint of any) such unreal/illogical 'things'.

Is THIS sort of garbage what the 'exotic'-DM crowd is reduced to? Desperate illogical/unreal 'mathturbation' masquerading as 'real' science; taken seriously ONLY by an 'exotic'-DM 'echo-chamber' of so-called theoretical 'physicists' who will not heed reality/logic at all in their desperation to 'find something' that does not exist as theorised/hypothesised by such NON-scientists.

Yes, you read me right: such fantasy-science 'snake-oil chancers/salesmen' are NOT scientists, just 'math-turbationists'. What a sorry pass.

Jun 10, 2019
You do realize that neutronium is far more likely; gas without electrons half the density of hydrogen
Are you talking about this?

"each hydrino atom being a stable energy state of the hydrogen atom wherein the principle quantum number of the Rydberg formula of atomic hydrogen excited states is replaced by a reciprocal integer... neither hydrinos nor molecular hydrinos emit or absorb electromagnetic radiation as is typical of electronic transitions of the ordinary species. Observations support that hydrinos is the identity of the dark matter of the universe. Brilliant Light Power is engaged in experimentally characterizing hydrinos and developing the technology for commercial use."

I think he's talking about this.
Why doesn't anyone come up with an experiment to detect that?
You mean like this?

"NEGATIVE, EXTRAORDINARILY FAST HYDRINO PEAK REPLICATED ON A SECOND MATCHING GAS CHROMATOGRAPH, COLUMN, AND CONDITIONS"

Done and done.

Jun 10, 2019
ROFLOL
"Two theoretical physicists at the University of California, Davis have a new candidate for dark matter, and a possible way to detect it. "

Will wonders never cease, as the saying goes.

"It cannot be seen directly, but dark matter's presence can be detected because its gravity determines the shape of distant galaxies and other objects."


Uhhh What exactly is the difference between DARK MATTER"s GRAVITY and NORMAL MATTER's GRAVITY.
BOTH Gravities should still depend on MASS to attract one Mass to another.

HOW could Dark Matter's GRAVITY determine shapes of distant galaxies, when the forces of ANY KIND of Gravity in the presence of Mass DIMINISHES WITH DISTANCE? e.g. 2 galaxy clusters that are 10MLY apart cannot be drawn together by Gravity. The distance is too great and the Gravity too weak. But the distance is overcome between the 2 clusters by a electromagnetic field that draws them closer together.

Jun 10, 2019
@S_E_U.
From article: "It cannot be seen directly, but dark matter's presence can be detected because its gravity determines the shape of distant galaxies and other objects."
...
HOW could Dark Matter's GRAVITY determine shapes of distant galaxies, when the forces of ANY KIND of Gravity in the presence of Mass DIMINISHES WITH DISTANCE?...
Careful, mate. I suspect you misread what they meant. They meant that the (allegedly 'exotic') DM gravity 'there' at those distant galaxies affected their shape formation/evolution....NOT that the (allegedly 'exotic') DM gravity 'here' (eg, in our Milky Way galaxy) could affect the DISTANT galaxy(s) 'out there'. Cheers. :)

Jun 10, 2019
What I don't understand is why there is a theory of dark matter to begin with. As far as I've read it all stems from the rate of rotation of stars around galaxies, the outer stars rotating faster than they should. Why would you expect them not to? They're not orbiting a single point in the center, they're orbiting a rotating mass that's spread out over the volume of the galaxy. The faster-rotating stars close to the center drag the stars outside of them up to faster speeds, until the whole galaxy is rotating uniformly inside its unified gravitational field. If everything orbited the center of mass independently, galaxies wouldn't be uniform spirals, they'd be a mass of chaos. NASA has been using moving gravitational fields to bounce spacecraft up to higher speeds for decades already, so someone explain why this was never factored in.

In short, ain't no dark matter cause ain't no space cause ain't not globe Earth. That will be one million dollars.

Jun 10, 2019
Dark matter accounts for 85% of the matter in the universe

The accepted theory
Dark matter is a form of matter
That is thought to account for
Approximately 85% of the matter in the universe
And about a quarter of its total energy density
The majority of dark matter
Is thought to be non-baryonic in nature
Possibly being composed
Of some as-yet undiscovered subatomic particles
Wikipedia
https://en.wikipe...k_matter

Then we have our sage at UC Davis, the home of the Aggies
Andy Fell
Dark matter
Is thought to make up just over a quarter of our universe
https://www.ucdavis.edu/

When a topic
Such as darkmatter
Is discussed
One overriding property
Concerning darkmatter
Is Consistency
Because
For darkmatter
To have this respected credentials
This vacuous vacuum hath to contain this 85% darkmatter

For Andy Fell
At
ucdavis.edu
Hath
Destroyed these last shreds of darkmatter credibility
By reducing this vacuums darkmatter content
From 85%
To a miniscule 25%

Jun 10, 2019
The investigation of the large scale structure of the World revealed its high inhomogeneity. During the last couple of decades a rich picture of groups, clusters and superclusters of the galaxies separated by a number of huge empty voids was released. The foam-like structure becomes more and more clear. The building blocks of the large scale structure are superclusters and voids which are forming the supercluster-void network. This network has pronounced filamentary structure. In this paper we discuss the mechanism of creation and stabilization of the Macrostructure of the World in the frame of elastonic model.
https://www.acade...he_World
https://www.acade...k_Energy

Jun 10, 2019
You do realize that neutronium is far more likely; gas without electrons half the density of hydrogen. Why doesn't anyone come up with an experiment to detect that? That gas is so light


Neutronium (sometimes shortened to neutrium, also referred to as neutrite) is a hypothetical substance composed purely of neutrons.

Question eric96: How do neutrons form into gas? Protons are lighter than neutrons as are electrons & neutrinos which are the beta decay products of a neutron. An electron & a proton which compose most of the hydrogen in the Universe are lighter than a neutron, so how do you come up with neutronium being lighter than hydrogen?

Jun 10, 2019
Neutronium giver of strength

A hypothetical substance composed purely of neutrons
Coined by scientist Andreas von Antropoff in 1926
Atomic element number zero
With zero protons in its nucleus
An extremely dense substance
Neutronium
Theorized to exist in the cores of neutron stars as degenerate Neutronium
https://en.wikipe...utronium

p.s. thanks eric96, its elements like Neutronium that put this yin and yang into life

Jun 10, 2019
Dark matter is an epicycle to keep the big bang theory afloat.

The whole concept of red shift indicating expansion needs to be revisited, particularly when empirical evidence pointing to a decreasing speed of light accounts for the red-shift completely if photon energy is held constant at the time of putative emission. Never mind that if the universe were truly expanding the time to peak luminosity of type Ia supernova and the periodicity of cepheid variables would vary by a fact of (z+1), according to Einstein's (validated) theory of special relativity. But they don't.

Problem is the big bang has been politicized in the same way that the earth being the center of the universe was politicized in the time of Copernicus and Galileo. So, we get garbage science piled on top of garbage science, like the epicycles of old, with the unfortunate so-called scientists sadly wasting their careers while frolicking in the adulation of false praise and jiggered grant funding sources.

Jun 10, 2019
Meh. Another wild idea; let's see some evidence.

Especially if it's easy to detect.

Jun 11, 2019
Everyone is going to think I'm crazy but I know what dark matter is. Its the weight of soul and spirit, the 28 grams or whatever that seems to go into the ether when we die. Dark force is the 'gravity' if you will that draws lives and souls together, naturally towards love and harmony if left unbothered. When we have cataclysmic acts of violence and pain and horror and genocide it disturbs the waves natural inclination the way the ground violently stops a falling person as gravity naturally bends towards the core of the earth. I don't know how in the hell you measure it but somebody way more brilliant than I am will find a way using the weight of the soul, the single known value, as the key. Just shoot me an email I'd be massively curious if anyone looked into this

Jun 11, 2019
This same force along both spectrums of space-time draws souls who are massively impactful to their flashpoints in history.

Jun 11, 2019
Too bad if Dark Matter only interacts gravitationally. Then cosmology joins String Theory in the realms of the untestable

Jun 11, 2019
Too bad if Dark Matter only interacts gravitationally.
.......this is only a PROCLAMATION advanced by Pop-Cosmology.

Then cosmology joins String Theory in the realms of the untestable
........of course it's untestable because DM has never been isolated to prove it even exists. If you can't isolate something, it's impossible to ascribe features of gravity (or anything else) to it, but Pop-Cosmology takes the reverse tact & challenges you to prove their hypotheses are not real world physics, then when you do prove it they go on name calling rants, right CV Jonesy & Da Schneibo?

Jun 11, 2019
Dark matter is a supersolid that fills 'empty' space, strongly interacts with ordinary matter and is displaced by ordinary matter. What is referred to geometrically as curved spacetime physically exists in nature as the state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter. The state of displacement of the supersolid dark matter is gravity.

The supersolid dark matter displaced by a galaxy pushes back, causing the stars in the outer arms of the galaxy to orbit the galactic center at the rate in which they do.

Displaced supersolid dark matter is curved spacetime.

In the Bullet Cluster collision the dark matter has not separated from the ordinary matter. The collision is analogous to two boats that collide, the boats slow down and their bow waves continue to propagate. The water has not separated from the boats, the bow waves have. In the Bullet Cluster collision the galaxy's associated dark matter displacement waves have separated from the colliding galaxies, causing the light to lense

Jun 11, 2019
The interaction of matter behavior has always been a balance of counter forces. In the case of electromagnetic forces, positive and negative counter each other. Even in the decomposition of an electron, proton, and neutron there are smaller components that are balancing between positive and negative forces: i.e., the negatron, positron, and neutrino. The concept of a monopole would be without balance. So it should follow of dark matter, that dark matter and normal matter would be balancing gravitational forces, positive and negative counter each other. This alternative perspective of positive density matter and negative density matter are further explored in the book, 'The Evolutioning of Creation: Volume 2'.

Jun 11, 2019
that dark matter and normal matter would be balancing gravitational forces, positive and negative counter each other
......ok, show us where such + or - gravity exists?

Jun 11, 2019
that dark matter and normal matter would be balancing gravitational forces, positive and negative counter each other
......ok, show us where such + or - gravity exists?
says Benni

Gravity has no positive or negative force. Its only purpose is to draw/attract 2 or more samples of Mass together, whether those samples are Stars. planets or moons, etc. And there is a limit to the distances in which Gravity can attract those 2 masses to come closer or to combine.

A body that is orbiting the Sun is governed by both Gravity from the Sun as well as the Force of Repulsion or Diamagnetism, which PUSHES 2 bodies away from each other. The latter prevents the inner planets of our Solar System from falling into the Sun.

So that IF Dark Matter existed, it would have to interact not only with Gravity, but also with Diamagnetism aka Repulsion, otherwise that Dark Matter would be combining with normal Matter and no longer be "Dark".

Jun 11, 2019
I see that we have 2 newcomers to the physorg phorums, SJBauer and ActionFigureJ
Welcome and we hope that you enjoy your time in these phorums.

I personally am but a mere scholar and interested observer, so it is possible that I might learn from you as well.

Jun 12, 2019
There is a theory that matter can exist 'out of phase'. It's likely completely inaccurate, but if it is it may be the case that dark matter is out of phase by 180 degrees. This would make it completely undetectable and would not interact with normal matter apart from gravitational and magnetic effects. Just a thought.

Jun 12, 2019
Here is a simple idea, dark matter is just compressed vacuum energy, which like light is just a high energy boson.

What we see of as gravity for DM, is just where vacuum energy is dense, which basic optics tells us denser material, slower light moves through it. We also have SI admitting permiability and permittivity of free space cant be taken as constants, etgo speed of light cant be constant.

So vacuum energy is just like light, but moves along x,y,z rather tuan t. If we think of photon and gluon as "real" bosons, then vacuum energy would be the imaginary versions.

Dark energy is the reverse, where light and vacuum energy are sparse - no need for fancy particles, just variations/symetry of the gauge bosons.

Jun 12, 2019
@Benni, +gravity would be dark matter and mass, -gravity would br dark energy.

Jun 12, 2019
I have a suspicion that gravity is to space as time is to light. The only odd thing is how we percieve both as mass connects the two.

Dark matter is how we percieve +gravity,-time (past), Dark energy is how we percieve -gravity,+time (future). So gravity is just anti-time. The only reason we percieve time as going forward is because DE>DM by about 3:1, and that likely sets the speed of light.

Jun 12, 2019
A body that is orbiting the Sun is governed by both Gravity from the Sun as well as the Force of Repulsion or Diamagnetism, which PUSHES 2 bodies away from each other. The latter prevents the inner planets of our Solar System from falling into the Sun.

What did I just read? You're saying that Earth stays in orbit because Earth and Sun repel each other? Do you have any valid source that confirms this?

I have been taught that planets stay in orbits because they have forward momentum and the Sun is simultaneously pulling them towards it so the forces cancel each other out and we have a circular orbit.

Jun 13, 2019
I personally am but a mere scholar and interested observer, so it is possible that I might learn from you as well
How long before they realize you're an imbecile who enjoys play acting? Not long I'll wager. And then they'll block you so they can actually enjoy the site like most everybody else has.
Gravity has no positive or negative force
"In the case of gravity, mediated by spin 2 particles, charge is mass, which is always positive. Thus, q1q2 is always greater than zero, and gravity is always attractive. For spin 0 force mediators, however, there is no restriction on the charges and you can very well have repulsive forces."

-See? As soon as you open your mouth. How pathetic.

Jun 17, 2019
Surprisingly, the maximum weight of a galaxy in the universe is limited by the speed of light in a vacuum. The mass restriction for a galaxy strictly follows from the law of gravity by I. Newton...
Now apply Newton's law of gravity (see https://qr.ae/TWG877 ):

F = (K1*M*m)/(r^2) + (K2*M*m)/r + K3*M*m

In galaxies, only the 2nd member will "work". Did little arifmetic reduction we will get:

v^2 = K2 * M0

Since the speed of light in vacuum is maximal, then from here we get the limiting mass of the galaxy in the Universe:

M0 < c^2 / K2

You can also get the speed of the stars, which depends only on the mass of the galaxy (on the mass of the circle of the galaxy, from the center to the star):

v = (K2 * M0)^0.5

Note that this formula is a relativistic formula. In fact, this formula strictly implies that stars in large galaxies (on the periphery) can speed up to the speed of light.

See more https://qr.ae/TWhPyG .

Jun 17, 2019
most likely dark matter is orthogonal electrons and they out to be everywhere albeit in the time domain

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