Related topics: dna · genes · protein · gene expression · cells

Protein quality control and mitochondria

Protein aggregates are toxic for mitochondrial function, and thus disrupt the supply of chemical energy to their host cells. An LMU team has characterized a protein complex that prevents the build-up of such deposits in the ...

A study describes the reaction mechanism of DNAzymes

A study from the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) has published a study in the journal Nature Catalysis that describes the reaction mechanism used by the DNAzyme 9DB1, the first structurally available ...

Neutrons get a wider angle on DNA and RNA to advance 3-D models

Scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland are using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to capture new information about DNA and RNA molecules and ...

A prebiotic route to DNA

DNA may have appeared on Earth earlier than has hitherto been assumed. LMU chemists led by Oliver Trapp show that a simple reaction pathway could have given rise to DNA subunits on the early Earth.

Researchers identify the source of asymmetry in RNA-DNA hybrids

A study headed by the Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona) and published in the journal CHEM furthers the understanding of the asymmetry between nucleic acid hybrids. This advance may make a significant contribution ...

How the cell protects itself

The cell contains transcripts of genetic material, which migrate from the cell nucleus to another part of the cell. This movement protects the genetic transcripts from the recruitment of "spliceosomes." If this protection ...

DNA base editing induces substantial off-target RNA mutations

In a study published in Nature on June 10, researchers from Dr. Yang Hui's Lab at the Institute of Neuroscience of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and collaborators from the CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational ...

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a biologically important type of molecule that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. RNA is very similar to DNA, but differs in a few important structural details: in the cell, RNA is usually single-stranded, while DNA is usually double-stranded; RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA contains deoxyribose (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom); and RNA has the base uracil rather than thymine that is present in DNA.

RNA is transcribed from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases and is generally further processed by other enzymes. RNA is central to the synthesis of proteins. Here, a type of RNA called messenger RNA carries information from DNA to structures called ribosomes. These ribosomes are made from proteins and ribosomal RNAs, which come together to form a molecular machine that can read messenger RNAs and translate the information they carry into proteins. There are many RNAs with other roles – in particular regulating which genes are expressed, but also as the genomes of most viruses.

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