Related topics: dna · genes · protein · gene expression · cells

New discovery to fight citrus exocortis viroid

What's a viroid like you doing in a ribosome like this? This is the question set out by a team from the Institute for Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology (IBMCP, in Spanish), a joint center of the Universitat Politècnica ...

Methylation and mopping up

LMU researchers have discovered a novel type of chemical modification in bacterial RNAs. The modification is apparently attached to molecules only when cells are under stress, and is rapidly removed during recovery.

Fine-tuning gene expression during stress recovery

Scientists have discovered non-coding RNA has a novel role to fine-tune gene expressions during stress recovery, getting closer to uncovering a 30-year-old nuclear mystery.

Coordinating the removal of RNA-DNA hybrids

Two research teams led by Professors Brian Luke and Helle Ulrich at the Institute of Molecular Biology have deciphered how two enzymes, RNase H2 and RNase H1, are coordinated to remove RNA-DNA hybrid structures from chromosomes. ...

Using gene scissors to detect diseases

CRISPR/Cas technology can do more than alter genes. A research team at the University of Freiburg is using what are known as gene scissors—which scientists can use to edit genetic material—in order to better diagnose ...

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a biologically important type of molecule that consists of a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate. RNA is very similar to DNA, but differs in a few important structural details: in the cell, RNA is usually single-stranded, while DNA is usually double-stranded; RNA nucleotides contain ribose while DNA contains deoxyribose (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom); and RNA has the base uracil rather than thymine that is present in DNA.

RNA is transcribed from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases and is generally further processed by other enzymes. RNA is central to the synthesis of proteins. Here, a type of RNA called messenger RNA carries information from DNA to structures called ribosomes. These ribosomes are made from proteins and ribosomal RNAs, which come together to form a molecular machine that can read messenger RNAs and translate the information they carry into proteins. There are many RNAs with other roles – in particular regulating which genes are expressed, but also as the genomes of most viruses.

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