Related topics: protein · cancer cells · cancer · stem cells · immune system

A single cell type map of human tissues

In a study published in the US journal Science Advances, a single cell type map of human tissues is presented. An open access atlas has been launched with more than 250,000 interactive plots to allow researchers to explore ...

Chromosome positioning during sperm differentiation described

Chromosomes occupy specific regions of the cell nucleus called chromosome territories. In somatic cells, scientists have observed that there is a correlation between this positioning and genome regulation. In fact, alterations ...

Researchers find fat burning molecule in mice

Linked to serious health problems including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, obesity affects more than a third of adults in the United States. Presently, there are few safe and effective nonsurgical therapeutic ...

Mapping of genetic control elements in the cerebellum

The mammalian cerebellum has long been associated almost exclusively with motor control, yet recent studies indicate that it also contributes to many higher brain functions. An international research team led by Prof. Dr. ...

Lipid polymer enables safe delivery of RNA drugs to the lungs

Hokkaido University researchers in Japan created and tested a library of lipid-based compounds to find a way to safely and effectively deliver RNA drugs to the lungs. Their analyses, published in the journal Materials Horizons, ...

A 'twist' brings new possibilities for ultra-thin 2D materials

A new study from The Australian National University (ANU) shows how the ability of 2D materials to convert sunlight into electricity can be controlled by simply "twisting" the angle between two ultra-thin layers correctly.

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Cell (biology)

The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. It is the smallest unit of an organism that is classified as living, and is often called the building block of life. Some organisms, such as most bacteria, are unicellular (consist of a single cell). Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular. (Humans have an estimated 100 trillion or 1014 cells; a typical cell size is 10 µm; a typical cell mass is 1 nanogram.) The largest known cell is an unfertilized ostrich egg cell.

In 1835 before the final cell theory was developed, a Czech Jan Evangelista Purkyně observed small "granules" while looking at the plant tissue through a microscope. The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells. All cells come from preexisting cells. Vital functions of an organism occur within cells, and all cells contain the hereditary information necessary for regulating cell functions and for transmitting information to the next generation of cells.

The word cell comes from the Latin cellula, meaning, a small room. The descriptive name for the smallest living biological structure was chosen by Robert Hooke in a book he published in 1665 when he compared the cork cells he saw through his microscope to the small rooms monks lived in.

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