Blood stem cells found to not be in charge in an emergency

As long as we are healthy, our body keeps the number of blood and immune cells largely constant. However, any infection or other disorder that increases cell consumption results in cell loss, which must be replaced as quickly ...

Nanovesicles from cells for biomedical applications

National University of Singapore scientists have fabricated nano-sized vesicles from cells via a cell shearing approach that can be used for various biomedical applications.

Scientists discover secreted protein helps repair and grow muscles

Scientists from Tokyo Metropolitan University have discovered that a protein called platelet-derived growth factor subunit B (PDGF-B) is continuously secreted from skeletal muscle cells and helps to repair muscles by encouraging ...

How to turn a tentacle into a foot

All multicellular organisms, including humans, animals and plants, are made up of specialized cells called differentiated cells. Thus, the cells that make up the epidermis do not have the same identity—nor the same function—as ...

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Stem cell

Stem cells are cells found in most, if not all, multi-cellular organisms. They are characterized by the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and differentiating into a diverse range of specialized cell types. Research in the stem cell field grew out of findings by Canadian scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till in the 1960s. The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells that are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells that are found in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialized embryonic tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin or intestinal tissues.

Stem cells can now be grown and transformed into specialized cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture. Highly plastic adult stem cells from a variety of sources, including umbilical cord blood and bone marrow, are routinely used in medical therapies. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through therapeutic cloning have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.

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