Related topics: genes · cells · protein · genome · cancer cells

Study: How placentas evolved in mammals

The fossil record tells us about ancient life through the preserved remains of body parts like bones, teeth and turtle shells. But how to study the history of soft tissues and organs, which can decay quickly, leaving little ...

New method boosts the study of regulation of gene activity

One way cells can control the activities of their genes is by adding small chemical modifications to the DNA that determine which genes are turned on or off. Methyl groups are one of these chemical modifications or tags. ...

New technology helps reveal inner workings of human genome

Weill Cornell Medicine and New York Genome Center researchers, in collaboration with Oxford Nanopore Technologies, have developed a new method to assess on a large scale the three-dimensional structure of the human genome, ...

Amphioxus sequencing gives insight on vertebrate evolution

Vertebrate evolution was accompanied by two rounds of whole genome duplication followed by functional divergence in terms of regulatory circuits and gene expression patterns. As a basal and slow-evolving chordate species, ...

To treat or to tolerate pathogens, that is the question

Why do some people seem to never get sick while others consistently fall prey to viruses and bacteria? How can the spouse of a sick person avoid catching their partner's bug despite sleeping next to them every night? Questions ...

Scientists unravel mechanism for melting of DNA double helix

Researchers at the Francis Crick Institute have uncovered how the double helix structure of DNA is opened to allow DNA replication. The work could lead to further studies to better understand this process including how it ...

Exploring new roles for non-coding RNA

The past decade has seen enormous advances in the understanding of regulatory noncoding RNAs, according to a Northwestern Medicine review published in Molecular Cell.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as rRNA genes or tRNA genes, the product is a functional RNA.

Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modification of a protein. Gene regulation gives the cell control over structure and function, and is the basis for cellular differentiation, morphogenesis and the versatility and adaptability of any organism. Gene regulation may also serve as a substrate for evolutionary change, since control of the timing, location, and amount of gene expression can have a profound effect on the functions (actions) of the gene in the organism.

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