Plant cellulose prevents short circuits in batteries

July 22, 2016 by Lisa Zyga feature
Cellulose that originates from plant material is used as a thin layer in a new separator membrane for batteries, resulting in a large increase in capacity retention at high temperatures. Credit: Kim et al. ©2016 American Chemical Society

(Phys.org)—In order to prevent short circuits in batteries, porous separator membranes are often placed between a battery's electrodes. There is typically a tradeoff involved, since these separators must simultaneously prevent leakage current between electrodes while allowing ions to pass through the porous channels to generate current. Conventionally, these membranes are made of synthetic materials, such as polymers.

In a new study published in Nano Letters, researchers from the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST) in South Korea have designed a cellulose nanomat, or "c-mat," separator membrane that contains a thin layer of nanoporous plant cellulose on top of a thick macroporous polymer layer.

By finely tuning the thicknesses of the two layers, the researchers were able to design a separator membrane that delicately balances the tradeoff between preventing leakage current and supporting fast ion transport.

With its tiny pores, the nanoporous cellulose layer prevents leakage current between , preventing short circuits. On the other hand, the macroporous polymer layer's porous channels are too large to prevent between electrodes, but their large size enables them to function like "ionic highways" to rapidly transport charges.

The new separator has another major advantage: At high temperatures (60 °C), batteries with the new separator membranes have an 80% capacity retention after 100 cycles, whereas batteries with typical commercial polymer separators maintain just 5% of their initial capacity after 100 cycles at the same temperature.

The researchers explain that the large capacity loss in the commercial batteries at high temperature occurs due to unwanted side reactions between lithium salts and water, which produces harmful byproducts such as . The nanoporous cellulose-based layer of the new separator membranes has a manganese-chelating ability, so that it binds to the manganese ions and prevents them from participating in the reactions that cause capacity loss. In addition, the macroporous polymer layer captures the acidic reactants that produce the manganese ions, resulting in fewer of these ions in the first place.

"We demonstrate in this work that the chemically active cellulose-based c-mat separator can mitigate the manganese ion-induced adverse effects," coauthor Sang-Young Lee, Professor at UNIST's School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, told Phys.org. "This enables a remarkable improvement in the high-temperature cycling performance far beyond that which is attainable with conventional membrane technologies."

In the future, the researchers plan to modify the separators for potential use in next-generation rechargeable batteries such as sodium-ion, lithium-sulfur, and metal-ion batteries.

"The c-mat separator is expected to be used for next-generation high-performance batteries with high temperature stability—for example, in large-sized batteries for electric vehicles and grid-scale electricity storage systems," Lee said.

In addition to its use as a separator membrane, the c-mat separator also has potential applications in membranes for desalination systems, as well as for ecofriendly sensors for heavy metal ions.

Explore further: Ternary-layered separator to retard the shuttle of polysulfides towards highly-stable lithium–sulfur batteries

More information: Jung-Hwan Kim et al. "Functionalized Nanocellulose-Integrated Heterolayered Nanomats toward Smart Battery Separators." Nano Letters. DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02069

Related Stories

Dendrite-proof batteries made possible by Zylon nanofibers

May 17, 2016

(Phys.org)—One of the biggest problems plaguing high-energy, lithium-metal batteries is dendrites, which form when some of the lithium from the electrode begins to branch outside the electrode and into the electrolyte, ...

Putting the squeeze on batteries (w/ video)

November 22, 2011

People depend on lithium-ion batteries every day to power cellphones, laptops and other electronic devices, and perhaps one day to run cars. This video shows how Craig Arnold, an associate professor of mechanical and aerospace ...

Research aims to improve lithium-based batteries

January 22, 2015

Research probing the complex science behind the formation of "dendrites" that cause lithium-ion batteries to fail could bring safer, longer-lasting batteries capable of being charged within minutes instead of hours.

Recommended for you

The microscopic origin of efficiency droop in LEDs

November 21, 2017

Light-emitting diodes—or LEDs, as they are commonly known—have been slowly replacing incandescent light bulbs in applications ranging from car taillights to indicators on electronics since their invention in the 1960s.

Borophene shines alone as 2-D plasmonic material

November 20, 2017

An atom-thick film of boron could be the first pure two-dimensional material able to emit visible and near-infrared light by activating its plasmons, according to Rice University scientists.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.