NASA Tests Launch Abort System At Supersonic Speeds

Jul 20, 2010
NASA Tests Launch Abort System At Supersonic Speeds
A six percent model of the Orion spacecraft being calibrated in the 9-foot-by-7-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames. Photo Credit: NASA/Ames/Dominic Hart

(PhysOrg.com) -- Aerospace engineers at NASA's Ames Research Center are conducting a series of wind tunnel tests to develop technology for future human space exploration. Using a six percent scale Orion model, featuring complex moving parts, engineers are simulating various launch abort conditions the spacecraft might encounter during ascent to characterize the effects of launch abort and control motor plumes on the aerodynamics of the Orion spacecraft.

One of the critical aspects of human space flight is the ability to protect astronauts in case of a failure on the launch pad and during the climb to orbit. In case of such an emergency, NASA engineers have designed a launch abort system, or LAS, to safely deliver astronauts aboard the away from the failure and return them to Earth.

There are extremely complex interactions between the launch abort system’s control effectors, or motors, and the aerodynamic environment that the spacecraft encounters. Wind tunnel testing, using scaled models, is one of the means for NASA engineers to better understand and explain this dynamic interaction.

"Simulating launch aborts will help us explain the complex interaction between the plumes from the smaller attitude control motor and the larger abort motor," said Jim Ross, an aerospace engineer who is leading the team at Ames supporting NASA's efforts to develop Orion and its systems. "This is the most intricate wind tunnel model the Orion team has developed and the data we obtain will go a long way toward defining the aerodynamics of the Orion spacecraft during ascent," Ross said.

The abort system is a tower atop a cover that fits over Orion during launch and ascent through Earth's atmosphere. It features a powerful, four-nozzle solid rocket, called the abort motor, which, when engaged, will quickly shepherd Orion and its precious human cargo away from the launch vehicle in an emergency. It also is equipped with a smaller, eight-nozzle motor at the top of the tower, called the attitude control motor, which is designed to steer and stabilize Orion towards safety. In the wind tunnel, plumes from both of these motors are simulated using high-pressure air.

"Our team at Ames Research Center conducts simulations that help us develop assured launch abort technology and resolve complex aerodynamic interactions," said Mark Geyer, Orion Project Office manager at NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston. "The team’s work greatly contributes to ensuring the safety of the astronaut crew throughout the entire mission. The launch abort system wind tunnel tests were a major factor in the development of the LAS and the recent successful Pad Abort 1 flight test."

The tests at NASA Ames are part of a larger effort to facilitate the development of Orion, NASA's new Orion spacecraft. Engineers across the agency, including NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston and NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., are involved in successfully completing these tests in wind tunnels across the nation.

Explore further: Testing immune cells on the International Space Station

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

NASA, ATK Successfully Test First Orion Launch Abort Motor

Nov 21, 2008

(PhysOrg.com) -- Flames shot more than 100 feet high in a successful 5.5-second ground test firing Thursday, Nov. 20, of a launch abort motor for NASA's next generation spacecraft, the Orion crew exploration vehicle. NASA ...

NASA Prepares for First Unmanned Test of Orion

Mar 12, 2008

Returning humans to the moon by 2020 may seem like a distant goal, but NASA's Constellation Program already has scheduled the first test flight toward that goal to take place in less than 12 months.

Countdown to Pad Abort 1 Test

May 04, 2010

(PhysOrg.com) -- NASA’s latest flight test, called Pad Abort 1 (PA-1), is scheduled for launch on Thursday, May 6, at the Orion Abort Flight Test Launch Complex 32E at the U.S. Army’s White Sands Missile ...

Recommended for you

Testing immune cells on the International Space Station

1 hour ago

The human body is fine-tuned to Earth's gravity. A team headed by Professor Oliver Ullrich from the University of Zurich's Institute of Anatomy is now conducting an experiment on the International Space Station ...

Easter morning delivery for space station

7 hours ago

Space station astronauts got a special Easter treat: a cargo ship full of supplies. The shipment arrived Sunday morning via the SpaceX company's Dragon cargo capsule.

NASA's space station Robonaut finally getting legs

Apr 19, 2014

Robonaut, the first out-of-this-world humanoid, is finally getting its space legs. For three years, Robonaut has had to manage from the waist up. This new pair of legs means the experimental robot—now stuck ...

Sun emits a mid-level solar flare

Apr 18, 2014

The sun emitted a mid-level solar flare, peaking at 9:03 a.m. EDT on April 18, 2014, and NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory captured images of the event. Solar flares are powerful bursts of radiation. Harmful ...

User comments : 0

More news stories

Easter morning delivery for space station

Space station astronauts got a special Easter treat: a cargo ship full of supplies. The shipment arrived Sunday morning via the SpaceX company's Dragon cargo capsule.

Making graphene in your kitchen

Graphene has been touted as a wonder material—the world's thinnest substance, but super-strong. Now scientists say it is so easy to make you could produce some in your kitchen.