In our digital world, are young people losing the ability to read emotions?

Aug 22, 2014 by Stuart Wolpert
Are young people losing the ability to read emotions?
Students in the study looked at photos and were tested on their ability to recognize the emotions of those pictured. Credit: Stephen Nowicki

(Phys.org) —Children's social skills may be declining as they have less time for face-to-face interaction due to their increased use of digital media, according to a UCLA psychology study.

UCLA scientists found that sixth-graders who went five days without even glancing at a smartphone, television or other digital screen did substantially better at reading human emotions than sixth-graders from the same school who continued to spend hours each day looking at their electronic devices.

"Many people are looking at the benefits of digital media in education, and not many are looking at the costs," said Patricia Greenfield, a distinguished professor of psychology in the UCLA College and senior author of the study. "Decreased sensitivity to emotional cues—losing the ability to understand the emotions of other people—is one of the costs. The displacement of in-person social interaction by screen interaction seems to be reducing social skills."

The research will be in the October print edition of Computers in Human Behavior and is already published online.

The psychologists studied two sets of sixth-graders from a Southern California public school: 51 who lived together for five days at the Pali Institute, a nature and science camp about 70 miles east of Los Angeles, and 54 others from the same school. (The group of 54 would attend the camp later, after the study was conducted.)

The camp doesn't allow to use electronic devices—a policy that many students found to be challenging for the first couple of days. Most adapted quickly, however, according to camp counselors.

At the beginning and end of the study, both groups of students were evaluated for their ability to recognize other people's emotions in photos and videos. The students were shown 48 pictures of faces that were happy, sad, angry or scared, and asked to identify their feelings.

They also watched videos of actors interacting with one another and were instructed to describe the characters' emotions. In one scene, students take a test and submit it to their teacher; one of the students is confident and excited, the other is anxious. In another scene, one student is saddened after being excluded from a conversation.

The children who had been at the camp improved significantly over the five days in their ability to read facial emotions and other to emotion, compared with the students who continued to use their media devices.

Researchers tracked how many errors the students made when attempting to identify the emotions in the photos and videos. When analyzing the photos, for example, those at the camp made an average of 9.41 errors at the end of the study, down from 14.02 at the beginning. The students who didn't attend the camp recorded a significantly smaller change. For the videos, the students who went to camp improved significantly, while the scores of the students who did not attend camp showed no change. The findings applied equally to both boys and girls.

You can't learn nonverbal cues from a screen in the way you can learn it from face-to-face communication," said lead author Yalda Uhls, a senior researcher with the UCLA's Children's Digital Media Center, Los Angeles. "If you're not practicing face-to-face communication, you could be losing important social skills."

Students participating in the study reported that they text, watch television and play video games for an average of four-and-a-half hours on a typical school day. Some surveys have found that the figure is even higher nationally, said Uhls, who also is the Southern California regional director of Common Sense Media, a national nonprofit organization.

Greenfield, director of the CDMC, considers the results significant, given that they occurred after only five days.

She said the implications of the research are that people need more face-to-face interaction, and that even when people use for , they're spending less time developing and learning to read nonverbal cues.

"We've shown a model of what more face-to-face interaction can do," Greenfield said. "Social interaction is needed to develop skills in understanding the emotions of other people."

Uhls said that emoticons are a poor substitute for face-to-face communication: "We are social creatures. We need device-free time."

Explore further: Study examines online, face-to-face courses

More information: Yalda T. Uhls, Minas Michikyan, Jordan Morris, Debra Garcia, Gary W. Small, Eleni Zgourou, Patricia M. Greenfield, "Five days at outdoor education camp without screens improves preteen skills with nonverbal emotion cues," Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 39, October 2014, Pages 387-392, ISSN 0747-5632, dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.05.036

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TheGhostofOtto1923
3 / 5 (4) Aug 22, 2014
Well this began with tv didn't it? Kids spent a great deal of time passively watching people only pretending to be emotional. They watched scripted interactions devoid of confusion and hesitation, with conflicts conveniently resolved within a half hour or so.

TV primed us for digital isolation.
arieh_shishirin
not rated yet Aug 23, 2014
This is a good thing, cortical remapping for more useful skills.

"Social skills" in the end are in a sense can be also trying to get a better slice of the pie in a zero sum game. empathy can be also stereotyping.

the question is, if there is indeed such remapping going on, what is gained instead of emotional empathy?
AJW
not rated yet Aug 24, 2014
There is a need to show what changes were due to camp experience and what were due to not using electronic social media devices. Camp experience in and of itself may very well provide students with improved social skills. Talk to Univ. of Mich. Fresh-Air Camp program people.