Researchers use combustible gases to power leaping robots

Feb 13, 2013

They can already stand, walk, wriggle under obstacles, and change colors. Now researchers are adding a new skill to the soft robot arsenal: jumping.

Using small explosions produced by a mix of methane and oxygen, researchers at Harvard have designed a soft that can leap as much as a foot in the air. That ability to jump could one day prove critical in allowing the robots to avoid obstacles during search and rescue operations. The research is described in a Feb. 6 paper in the international edition of Angewandte Chemie.

"Initially, our soft used pneumatic pressure to actuate," said Robert Shepherd, first author of the paper, former postdoctoral researcher in the Whitesides Research Group at Harvard, and now an assistant professor at Cornell. "While that system worked, it was rather slow—it took on the order of a second. Using combustion, however, allows us to actuate the robots very fast. We were able to measure the speed of the robot's jump at 4 meters per second."

Just as with other soft robots, the three-legged jumping system begins life as a mold created by a 3-D printer. The robots are molded using soft silicone that allows them to stretch and flex.

But where pneumatic robots are connected to tubing that pumps air, the jumping robots are connected to tubes that deliver a precisely controlled mix of and oxygen. Using high-voltage wires embedded in each leg of the robot, researchers deliver a spark to ignite the gases, causing a small explosion that sends the robot into the air.

Among the key design innovations that allowed the combustion system to work, Shepherd said, was the incorporation of a simple valve into each leg of the robot.

"We flow fuel and oxygen into the channels, and ignite it," Shepherd said. "The heat expands the gas, causing the flap to close, pressurizing the channel and causing it to actuate. As the gas cools, the flap opens and we push the exhaust out by flowing more gas in. So we don't need to use complex valve systems, all because we chose to mold a soft flap into the robot from the beginning."

While the notion of using combustion to power a soft robot was enticing, it also came with a number of critical questions, not the least of which was whether the soft used to create the robots would even survive.

"It's a lot more powerful, but the question we had to answer was whether it was compatible—were the temperatures compatible—with this system," Shepherd said. "What we were able to show is, because the duration of the explosion is so short, the energies absorbed by the robot are small enough to be compatible with soft robots. What's more, the temperature of the robot increases by, on average, less than one kelvin."

While he hopes to see internal combustion systems developed that can allow robots to walk or even run, Shepherd said jumping made sense as a starting point.

"Because it releases so much energy so fast, it made sense for jumping to be the first 'gait' we explored with this system," he said. "The next step now is to learn how we can use this combustion system for other gaits, like running or even walking."

Explore further: Virtual robotization for human limbs

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Kilobots bring us one step closer to a robot swarm

Jun 17, 2011

(PhysOrg.com) -- When you think about robots, the odds are that you think about something that is fairly large. Maybe you picture a robot arms bolted to the floor of a factory or if you are feeling particularly ...

Recommended for you

Virtual robotization for human limbs

10 hours ago

Recent advances in computer gaming technology allow for an increasingly immersive gaming experience. Gesture input devices, for example, synchronise a player's actions with the character on the screen. Entertainment ...

Robots on reins could be the 'eyes' of firefighters

Mar 25, 2015

Researchers at King's College London have developed revolutionary reins that enable robots to act like guide dogs, which could enable that firefighters moving through smoke-filled buildings could save vital ...

Robot revolution will change world of work

Mar 24, 2015

Robots will fundamentally change the shape of the workforce in the next decade but many industries will still need a human touch, a QUT Future of Work Conference has heard.

Sawyer is a new face in collaborative robots

Mar 23, 2015

Sawyer is a new collaborative robot (robots that work with employees) from Boston, Massachusetts-based Rethink Robotics. In human terms, the salient feature about this robot is its friendly eyes on its "face" ...

User comments : 1

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

ODesign
not rated yet Feb 14, 2013
there are easier ways to overcome a 1 second time lag caused by poor valve design when using pneumatics and jump using pneumatics power technology without combustion. But a flash combustion is an interesting innovation.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.