Environmental oxygen triggers loss of webbed digits

Free fingers have many obvious advantages on land, such as in locomotion and grasping, while webbed fingers are typical of aquatic or gliding animals. But both amphibians and amniotes—which include mammals, reptiles, and ...

Baby pterodactyls could fly from birth

A breakthrough discovery reveals that pterodactyls, extinct flying reptiles, had a remarkable ability—they could fly from birth. The importance of this discovery is highlighted by the fact that no other living vertebrates ...

Life in Antarctica's ice mirrors human disease

The cooling of the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica, which began approximately 35 million years ago and gave rise to its present icy state, has for decades been considered a classic example of climate change triggering ...

Spatial DNA organization forms first, then the rest

The fundamental organization of the DNA in active and inactive compartments arises immediately after fertilization of the oocyte, even before genes are activated. This was discovered by researchers from the Hubrecht Institute ...

How cytoplasm separates from yolk

The segregation of yolk from the surrounding cytoplasm in the very early fish embryo is a key process for the development of fish larva. To identify its underlying mechanisms, biologists at the Institute of Science and Technology ...

Developing cells do synchronized swimming inside the embryo

The very beginnings of life inside a tiny developing embryo are mesmerizing to watch. Each movement and biochemical reaction is executed with well-ordered precision about 95 percent of the time, leading to the development ...

Elucidating cellular responses to force

Accumulated evidence suggests that physical force plays an important role in developmental processes of fertilized animal eggs. During embryogenesis, a variety of cell populations actively migrate and change their positions, ...

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Embryo

An embryo (irregularly from Greek: ἔμβρυον, plural ἔμβρυα, lit. "that which grows," from en- "in" + bryein "to swell, be full"; the proper Latinate form would be embryum) is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth, hatching, or germination. In humans, it is called an embryo until about eight weeks after fertilization (i.e. ten weeks LMP), and from then it is instead called a fetus.

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