Physicists create stable, strongly magnetized plasma jet in laboratory

Physicists create stable, strongly magnetized plasma jet in laboratory
PPPL physicist Lan Gao Credit: Elle Starkman

When you peer into the night sky, much of what you see is plasma, a soupy amalgam of ultra-hot atomic particles. Studying plasma in the stars and various forms in outer space requires a telescope, but scientists can recreate it in the laboratory to examine it more closely.

Now, a team of scientists led by physicists Lan Gao of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Edison Liang of Rice University, has for the first time created a particular form of coherent and magnetized jet that could deepen the understanding of the workings of much larger jets that stream from newborn stars and possibly black holes—stellar objects so massive that they trap light and warp both space and time.

"We are now creating stable, supersonic, and strongly magnetized plasma jets in a laboratory that might allow us to study astrophysical objects light years away," said astrophysicist Liang, co-author of the paper reporting the results in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

The team created the jets using the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The researchers aimed 20 of OMEGA's individual beams into a ring-shaped area on a plastic target. Each laser created a tiny puff of plasma; as the puffs expanded, they put pressure on the inner region of the ring. That pressure then squeezed out a plasma jet reaching over four millimeters in length and created a magnetic field that had a strength of over 100 tesla.

"This is the first step in studying in a laboratory," said Gao, who was the primary author of the paper. "I'm excited because we not only created a jet. We also successfully used advanced diagnostics on OMEGA to confirm the jet's formation and characterize its properties."

The diagnostic tools, developed with teams from LLE and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), measured the jet's density, temperature, length, how well it stayed together as it grew through space, and the shape of the magnetic field around it. The measurements help scientists determine how the laboratory phenomena compare to jets in . They also provide a baseline that scientists can tinker with to observe how the plasma behaves under different conditions.

"This is groundbreaking research because no other team has successfully launched a supersonic, narrowly beamed jet that carries such a , extending to significant distances," said Liang. "This is the first time that scientists have demonstrated that the magnetic field does not just wrap around the jet, but also extends parallel to the jet's axis," he said.

The researchers hope to expand their research with larger laser facilities and investigate other types of phenomena. "The next step involves seeing whether an external could make the jet longer and more collimated," Gao said.

"We would also like to replicate the experiment using the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which has 192 laser beams, half of which could be used to create our plasma ring. It would have a larger radius and thus produce a longer jet than that produced using OMEGA. This process would help us figure out under which conditions the plasma jet is strongest."


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Macroscopic phenomena governed by microscopic physics

More information: L. Gao et al, Mega-Gauss Plasma Jet Creation Using a Ring of Laser Beams, The Astrophysical Journal (2019). DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab07bd
Citation: Physicists create stable, strongly magnetized plasma jet in laboratory (2019, May 31) retrieved 21 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-physicists-stable-strongly-magnetized-plasma.html
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
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May 31, 2019
"When you peer into the night sky"

-This is like, the Universe, isnt it?

"much of what you see is plasma, a soupy amalgam of ultra-hot atomic particles."

-This is like, Electricity, isnt it?

Sounds disturbingly familiar.

May 31, 2019
The record holder for the highest continuous magnetic field is currently 45 teslas, so 100 teslas is literally astounding. To do that in combination with a stable plasma jet of macroscopic size is a world class advance.

I have no doubt that both the field strength and the plasma jet size will increase as the technology is further developed. I look forward to seeking what these brilliant scientists come up with in the future.

May 31, 2019
The record holder for the highest continuous magnetic field is currently 45 teslas, so 100 teslas is literally astounding. To do that in combination with a stable plasma jet of macroscopic size is a world class advance.
This setup is not continuous, but pulsed, with durations available from 0.1 to 10 ns. The record for pulsed magnetic fields is some 1200 Teslas.

May 31, 2019
no otto, when scientists speak of EM effects such as plasma? Is very different by magnitudes to the sparklies you babble of.

"What's otto doing?"
"Looks like he's banging some horseshoes together? For the sparks I guess?"
"Dammit! He's going to set the barn on fire. Again! Run & get the extinguisher."

May 31, 2019
Could this be some of the stuff that makes plasma misbehave in fusion reactors? This could be a very profitable piece of research. Hope the NIF gets them more data. Hope they keep plugging away at the theory, too.

May 31, 2019
You know what would have been nice? Pictures of something other than a human being... you know, maybe about the subject of the article? Nah... too on the nose.

May 31, 2019
well men, perhaps you could be a bit more specific.
I mean, consider that there are a whole lot of photographs of chalkboards in news articles about Einstein.
If you were selling chalk pr chalkboards? I suppose those photo's were fascinating?

So? Pictures of computers?
Because you can never have too many pictures of computers.
Certainly not if you were making a presentation of publicity efforts to the Board of Directors for the conglomerate manufacturing the brand of computers photoed.

Or perhaps you sell desks or filing cabinets? If you supplied tech gear or software? I wouldn't complain if you flagrantly boasted of your product contributing to the success of this project!

But, I'm getting a vague impression from your comment is possibly a criticism of including a photograph of Lan Gao?

A woman...
A woman scientist...

Please correct me if I have misunderstood your motivation here...

May 31, 2019
There are some images in the paper;

Mega-Gauss Plasma Jet Creation Using a Ring of Laser Beams
Gao, L. et al.
http://spacibm.ri...JL19.pdf

Jun 01, 2019
A ring of plasma to create jets, isn't that special.

Jun 01, 2019
I wonder how many more discoveries like this need to happen before Dark Matter is no longer needed to explain the movement of galaxies. Plasma seems to be able to propagate magnetic fields orders of magnitude further and stronger than we expected yet gravitational effects are supposedly still the missing item to balance the observations versus our expected results. The hate for plasma-based answers seems religious in its fervor and not based in reality.

Jun 01, 2019
Gee, looks like an accretion disk creating a plasma jet.

Fancy that! Who knew? /s

Jun 01, 2019
in combination with a stable plasma jet of macroscopic size is a world class advance.


Shows how hard it is to make cosmological ambipolar plasma that is not just drifting in the solar winds so to speak.

Pictures of something other than a human being... you know, maybe about the subject of the article?


It was the subject of the article, the work and the lead scientist of the hard work and she - as well as the rest of the group - deserve 15 minutes of fame.

Jun 01, 2019
I wonder how many more discoveries like this need to happen before Dark Matter is no longer needed to explain the movement of galaxies. Plasma seems to be able to propagate magnetic fields orders of magnitude further and stronger than we expected yet gravitational effects are supposedly still the missing item to balance the observations versus our expected results. The hate for plasma-based answers seems religious in its fervor and not based in reality.


Complete nonsense. This has been dealt with decades ago. There is no way a magnetic field is moving stars, gas and plasma around at the same velocity. It is a stupid idea. Do you know what galactic magnetic field strengths are? The solar wind carried IMF is ~ 5 nT. Galactic fields are ~ 0.1 - 1.0 nT. Nobody takes such nonsense seriously.

Jun 01, 2019
A Plasmatic Soupy Amalgam

When you peer into the night sky
This is like
The Universe
Isn't it
Much of what you see is plasma
A soupy amalgam
Of ultra hot atomic particles
This is like
Electricity
Isn't it
Sounds disturbingly familiar

Thanks GhostlyOtto, infectious isn't it

Jun 01, 2019
I wonder how many more discoveries like this need to happen before Dark Matter is no longer needed to explain the movement of galaxies. Plasma seems to be able to propagate magnetic fields orders of magnitude further and stronger than we expected yet gravitational effects are supposedly still the missing item to balance the observations versus our expected results. The hate for plasma-based answers seems religious in its fervor and not based in reality.


Complete nonsense. This has been dealt with decades ago. There is no way a magnetic field is moving stars, gas and plasma around at the same velocity. It is a stupid idea. Do you know what galactic magnetic field strengths are? The solar wind carried IMF is ~ 5 nT. Galactic fields are ~ 0.1 - 1.0 nT. Nobody takes such nonsense seriously.

The religious fervor as shown by jonesdumb. Those protecting their beliefs have no problem with lying as shown by it.

Jun 01, 2019
A Plasma Jet with a 100 Tesla Magnetic Field

The team created the jets
Using the OMEGA Laser Facility
At the University
Of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics
The researchers aimed
20 of OMEGA's individual laser beams
Into a ring-shaped area on a plastic target
Each laser created a tiny puff of plasma
As the puffs expanded
They put pressure on the inner region of the ring
That pressure
Then squeezed out a plasma jet
Reaching over four millimetres in length
And created a magnetic field
That had strength of over 100 tesla

p.s. Christmas must comes early in these Shires, when did you stray from nano Tesla, cantdrive

Jun 01, 2019
Laser initiated fusion just had a great leap forward, but does not realize it yet.

Jun 01, 2019
well jeff, if i understand the conjectures of your woo?

You are claiming that
a magnetic field creates a bar magnet?
A gleam of light creates the light bulb?
The heat creates the fireplace?

So... Which vane first?
The gullible sucker?
Or the woomongering fakir?

Jun 01, 2019

The religious fervor as shown by jonesdumb. Those protecting their beliefs have no problem with lying as shown by it.


I am not lying, you useless, uneducated clown. If you thought I was, you'd have pointed out the lie. You can't, because you simply do not have a clue about the subject area. You are a clueless wooist.

Jun 01, 2019
Recent claims were made by Nelson (1988), Battaner et al. (1992), Battaner (1993), and Binney (1992) that there exists a strong magnetic field which could speed up the interstellar gas (but not the stars), to the point of reproducing the flat curve of rotational velocity against galactic radius.
These claims were investigated and found unsupportable.


Observations of the Magnetic Fields inside and outside the Milky Way, starting with Globules (~ 1 parsec), Filaments, Clouds, SuperBubbles, Spiral Arms, Galaxies, Superclusters, and ending
with the Cosmological Universe's Background Surface (at ~ 8 Teraparsecs)
Jacques P. Vallée (1997)
https://ned.ipac....aper.pdf

Section 3.3.3.

Jun 01, 2019
And this paper is somewhat more explicit about how the magnetic hypothesis fails;

Dark matter, not magnetism
Persic, M. & Salucci, P.
http://articles.a...000.html

Jun 01, 2019
I do the same in the Lavatory

Jun 01, 2019
"We are now creating stable, supersonic, and strongly magnetized plasma jets in a laboratory that might allow us to study astrophysical objects light years away," said astrophysicist Liang"

"The researchers aimed 20 of OMEGA's individual laser beams into a ring-shaped area on a plastic target. Each laser created a tiny puff of plasma; as the puffs expanded, they put pressure on the inner region of the ring. That pressure then squeezed out a plasma jet reaching over four millimeters in length and created a magnetic field that had a strength of over 100 tesla."

So, they created a 'plasma jet' measuring over 4 mm long that carried a magnetic field that ran parallel to the plasma jet as well as encircling that jet.
It appears that their goal is to compare their lab-generated plasma jet to young stellar plasma jets.
"…to study the dynamics, physical processes, and scaling properties of astrophysical jets with a dynamic range exceeding those of previous laboratory settings."

Jun 02, 2019
And this paper is somewhat more explicit about how the magnetic hypothesis fails;

Dark matter, not magnetism
Persic, M. & Salucci, P.
http://articles.a...000.html
says Castrovagina

After reading your paper from circa 1992, the Introduction reveals that Battaner, et al were actually correct, after all. It appears that the scientists in the above physorg article are actively making evidence that magnetic fields are, indeed, responsible for affecting the motion of the gas.
-contd-

Jun 02, 2019
--contd
The Introduction reads: In a recent stimulating paper, Battaner et al (1992) have suggested that the conventional interpretation of the non-Keplerian profiles of galaxy rotation curves, in terms of unseen dark matter surrounding the visible matter, may be flawed. BGMF propose that the Doppler shifts of the 21 cm H1 line, from which extended rotation curves are obtained, do not have a purely gravitational origin but are widened by the non-gravitational effects of a magnetic field permeating the emitting gas.
Their key argument is that, once it has been postulated that a suitable magnetic field exists and that the interstellar gas is sufficiently ionised for magnetic field lines to be frozen in, magnetic forces affect the motion of the gas, with the effect that the latter acquires a rotational velocity higher than that resulting from pure gravitation.

Jun 02, 2019
Oh dear. There goes the Dark Matter hypothesis, running down the road - with Fidel running to catch it.
But seriously, the title is a dead-giveaway: "Physicists create stable, strongly magnetized plasma jet in laboratory"

They will continue their quest with bigger and better instruments (lasers, etc) and compare their findings/conclusions to the magnetised plasma jets in interstellar/intergalactic space.

Jun 02, 2019
And this paper is somewhat more explicit about how the magnetic hypothesis fails;

Dark matter, not magnetism
Persic, M. & Salucci, P.
http://articles.a...000.html
says Castrovagina

After reading your paper from circa 1992, the Introduction reveals that Battaner, et al were actually correct, after all. It appears that the scientists in the above physorg article are actively making evidence that magnetic fields are, indeed, responsible for affecting the motion of the gas.
-contd-


No they are not. That just shows how ignorant of the subject you are, you clown. Nobody was ever claiming this mechanism could move stars around, and the measured fields show that the mechanism is not possible. Learn to read. Idiot.

Jun 02, 2019
Oh dear. There goes the Dark Matter hypothesis, running down the road - with Fidel running to catch it.
But seriously, the title is a dead-giveaway: "Physicists create stable, strongly magnetized plasma jet in laboratory"

They will continue their quest with bigger and better instruments (lasers, etc) and compare their findings/conclusions to the magnetised plasma jets in interstellar/intergalactic space.


Idiot. It doesn't matter what they do in a lab, the measured fields of galaxies are insufficient to explain the rotation curves. Comprehension isn't your strong point, is it? Rhetorical. And these experiments have nothing to do with rotation curves, you loon. They are about powerful, magnetically confined jets, such as those from black holes.

Jun 02, 2019
Oh dear. There goes the Dark Matter hypothesis, running down the road - with Fidel running to catch it.
But seriously, the title is a dead-giveaway: "Physicists create stable, strongly magnetized plasma jet in laboratory"

They will continue their quest with bigger and better instruments (lasers, etc) and compare their findings/conclusions to the magnetised plasma jets in interstellar/intergalactic space.


Idiot. It doesn't matter what they do in a lab, the measured fields of galaxies are insufficient to explain the rotation curves. Comprehension isn't your strong point, is it? Rhetorical. And these experiments have nothing to do with rotation curves, you loon. They are about powerful, magnetically confined jets, such as those from black holes.


And the 1992 link that you provided was in reference to the refutation of "Dark Matter", not Black Holes. So which is it that you were trying to disprove by submitting the link?

Jun 02, 2019
Battaner, et al were actually correct, after all.
No, it doesn't.

Show this by link and quote or be proven to be lying again.

Jun 02, 2019
And the 1992 link that you provided was in reference to the refutation of "Dark Matter", not Black Holes. So which is it that you were trying to disprove by submitting the link?


Are you thick? Look at the comments I was replying too, you loon. People claiming magnetic fields could explain rotation curves. Can they? No, they can't. As shown. This experiment has nothing whatsoever to do with galactic magnetic fields, Learn to read. It is about collimated, astrophysical jets, dummy. The sort of things that come from black holes and YSOs. A totally unrelated subject.
Now go away, and stop commenting on things that you don't understand.

Jun 02, 2019
Accretion disks made of plasma in general exhibit axial jets. This paper shows a mechanism by which that happens. In the laboratory. Right under our noses.

Are we done here?

Jun 02, 2019
Spiralling Spin Jet Magnetic Field

Twenty individual lasers beam into a ring on a plastic target
Each laser creates a tiny puff of plasma
As the puffs expand
Put pressure on the inner region of the ring
Squeezes out a narrow supersonic plasma jet
Reaching four millimetres
With a field strength of a hundred tesla
This magnetic field
Wraps around this jet
Extending parallel to the jet's axis

For a high velocity collimated plasmatic jet
Complete with one hundred tesla field
Spiralling this plasmatic jet

For a magnetic field
Does not just spiral a jet
A magnetic field
Hath a polarity aspect
A north and south
For at each end to this jet
In this plasma is a pole
For at this jests extremity
Is its opposite pole
Where these field lines
Extend out
Return tail
And rejoin
Reconnect with their opposite number
Reconnect in this plasma
So they can extend out again
Spiralling their collimated jet
A 100 Tesla circulating magnetic field travelling at this speed of light

Jun 02, 2019
Quasi Neutrality in Spiralling Spin Jet Magnetic Fields

For what we are about to receive
A field we thought is one hundred tesla
Is not in fact one hundred tesla
For an outgoing field
Is counteracted
By an equal and opposite field
As this phys.org quasi neutral sage oft says
In these magnetic reconnections in these plasmatic clouds
In these north's and south's
There is in all actuality
No one hundred tesla field at all
As this field is nullified
It is no more
Just an illusion
For this one hundred returning tesla field
Returns this plasma to neutrality
This Field is Quasi Neutral

Jun 02, 2019
• 1 .The mesoscopic systems with their sometimes stochastic behavior may be (good) indicators of the dispersal of information from a holistic standpoint as well as [to be discussed later on] from a atomic and sub-atomic stance.

• 2. The data scattering as for systems with quasi-vector behavior on liquids, on gases, and amongst solids, when observed from an epi-phenomenological perspective versus a phenomenological one, can show that a number of classical views on mechanistic behavior of nano-systems and pico-systems may be substituted with some "machinic" view.

• 3. The abandonment of the purely mechanistic view of intermolecular forces and the adoption of thermodynamic and probabilistic concepts such as free energy and entropy have been two of the most important steps towards getting out of the worn-out mechanistic notions into more abstract conceptualization of information dispersal, working instead of causality.

• 4. Comparison also has to be made between hermeneutics of the no

Jun 02, 2019
• 4. Comparison also has to be made between hermeneutics of the notion of entropic forces within and without the framework of established thermodynamics. The very word "force" is itself a bit too collocated with entropy already. What we are after is to make it next of kin to ideas of data, information, topology of data, and mereology of stochasticity.

• 5. The chemical potentiality inside a variety of equilibrium states can be used as a platform for anisotropic configurations whereby not only the entropy of confinement, but also the entropy of dispersal find their true meaning.

• 6. Within contexts of classical nucleation and growth theories, the verifiability of any anisotropic reversal is also demonstrable, if not by means of a set of axioms, at least by multiplicities of interfacial behavior in which experimental data find their mereotopological ratios one in the neighborhood of the other (considering first, for the sake of simplicity, our state spaces to be of metric nature).


Jun 02, 2019
• 7. Information effects of temperature rises and falls are potentially detrimental to our methodology of information dispersal continuity. In case we lose the continuity, we may resort to comparing bonding sites of mono- , double- , and triple-nature. We can also compare organic crystallization processes with inorganic ones a translational effect of entropy modelling here can bring itself out relatively well against the segmentation of fairly robust frameworks for purposes of deriving novel data uncertainty topological models.

• 8. Thus, there remains the reciprocity of interfacial tensions calculations where surface tension gives rise to internal polarization of those data systems by which we should like to derive either axiomatic or multiple manifoldic regionalization.
REZA SANAYE/ Chair of Science and Art Polymaths[SAP]/su.azadeh.2005@gmail.com

Jun 02, 2019
Here is some suggested reading for this topic
"https://www.youtu...i1HqKhi"
"https://www.youtu...rustech"
Both of which have been exploring thus subject already for a while

Jun 02, 2019
jonesdumb always forgets about the electric fields aspect of electromagnetism when he attempts to debunk reality.

Jun 02, 2019
jonesdumb always forgets about the electric fields aspect of electromagnetism when he attempts to debunk reality.


What has that got to do with anything? It is not me that has debunked your nonsense. I linked to the paper, and others are referenced therein. Please link me to the papers that show how magnetic fields can affect the orbits of stars. Otherwise, shut up.

Jun 02, 2019
jonesdumb always forgets about the electric fields aspect of electromagnetism when he attempts to debunk reality.


What has that got to do with anything? It is not me that has debunked your nonsense. I linked to the paper, and others are referenced therein. Please link me to the papers that show how magnetic fields can affect the orbits of stars. Otherwise, shut up.

Still hung up on only considering the magnetic aspect, it is called electromagnetism jonesdumb. And it is 39 orders of magnitude stronger than gravity, and it explains observed galactic rotation curves without conjuring faerie dust.

Jun 02, 2019
The record holder for the highest continuous magnetic field is currently 45 teslas, so 100 teslas is literally astounding. To do that in combination with a stable plasma jet of macroscopic size is a world class advance.
This setup is not continuous, but pulsed, with durations available from 0.1 to 10 ns. The record for pulsed magnetic fields is some 1200 Teslas.


Oops my bad. You are completely correct. The record holder for pulsed fields is 1200 tesla and I didn't realize the plasma jet was pulsed. Thank you for your correction.

The advance is still brilliant however.

Jun 02, 2019
jonesdumb always forgets about the electric fields aspect of electromagnetism when he attempts to debunk reality.


What has that got to do with anything? It is not me that has debunked your nonsense. I linked to the paper, and others are referenced therein. Please link me to the papers that show how magnetic fields can affect the orbits of stars. Otherwise, shut up.

Still hung up on only considering the magnetic aspect, it is called electromagnetism jonesdumb. And it is 39 orders of magnitude stronger than gravity, and it explains observed galactic rotation curves without conjuring faerie dust.


No, it explains nothing. If it did, you could link to this paper that shows how it affects stellar orbits. You can't, because you haven't got a clue what you're talking about, woo boy.

Jun 02, 2019
debunking these fraudulent hallucinations claiming to be reality?

castro, torbjorn, DS
Good going, guys. My hats are off to all three of you.
To show how sincerely I mean my praise for your efforts?
I'm not even going to do my "Three Wisemen" joke.

You're welcomed.

Jun 02, 2019
jonesdumb always forgets about the electric fields aspect of electromagnetism when he attempts to debunk reality.


What has that got to do with anything? It is not me that has debunked your nonsense. I linked to the paper, and others are referenced therein. Please link me to the papers that show how magnetic fields can affect the orbits of stars. Otherwise, shut up.

Still hung up on only considering the magnetic aspect, it is called electromagnetism jonesdumb. And it is 39 orders of magnitude stronger than gravity, and it explains observed galactic rotation curves without conjuring faerie dust.


No, it explains nothing. If it did, you could link to this paper that shows how it affects stellar orbits. You can't, because you haven't got a clue what you're talking about, woo boy.

I have countless times, and then you resort to your lies.
http://www.ptep-o...3-01.PDF

https://www.plasm...rmation/

Jun 02, 2019
As this magnetic field clings to its jet

Magnetic plasma jets
Are said to be 4mm long
For the field strength
Depends on this jets diameter
There is a direct correlation
Of this jets diameter
Versus the number of tesla in its field
The question is, what is this jets diameter

Jun 02, 2019
As on another note
These jets emerge from puffs of plasma
Does it make no never mind
What energy source
Produces the energy
To create the puffs of plasma
Or are lasers required
To create the conditions
To create jets and magnetic fields

Jun 02, 2019
Are you thick? Look at the comments I was replying too, you loon
The worthless piece of shit you are interacting with in good faith is a vandal and a serial suckpuppet whose only purpose is to denigrate this site.

Turn it off, do not turn it back on.

Jun 02, 2019
The energy these lasers input in these jets and fields

These spin jet fields are required for a purpose
The energy
These lasers are inputting
Is far greater
Than the energy used by these jets and magnetic fields
So what are these jets and magnetic fields purpose in life?

Jun 02, 2019
As this magnetic field clings to its jet

Magnetic plasma jets
Are said to be 4mm long
For the field strength
Depends on this jets diameter
There is a direct correlation
Of this jets diameter
Versus the number of tesla in its field
The question is, what is this jets diameter
says granville

It is created in a lab setting, therefore it is limited in size, scope. At this point it is too similar to a magnetic field that surrounds a live electrical wire.

20 laser beams into a ring shaped area on a plastic target. The ring shaped area is like a miniature Tokamak where the plasma that is being created is compressed and heated enough that it has to squeeze out in a single 4 mm tube. The plasma jet should not disperse with distance.

"The researchers hope to expand their research with larger laser facilities and investigate other types of... "The next step involves seeing whether an external magnetic field could make the jet longer and more collimated," Gao said."

Jun 02, 2019
[qjonesdumb always forgets about the electric fields aspect of electromagnetism when he attempts to debunk reality.

it is called electromagnetism jonesdumb. And it is 39 orders of magnitude stronger than gravity, and it explains observed galactic rotation curves without conjuring faerie dust.

No, it explains nothing. If it did, you could link to this paper that shows how it affects stellar
I have countless times, and then you resort to your lies.
http://www.ptep-o...3-01.PDF
says CD85

The Introduction in your link, to wit: "Kristian Birkeland's hypothesis [1] that Earth's auroras are powered by electric charges flowing from the Sun was shown to be correct in the late 1960's [2]. Since that time there has been a growing interest in the exact structure of those streams. What are the precise shapes and physical proper- ties of these currents that cascade down into Earth's polar regions? NASA calls them "magnetic flux-ropes". A more....
-contd-

Jun 02, 2019
@CD85
"Magnetic flux-ropes" according to NASA. It appears that those "magnetic flux-ropes" have the energy/power to move Mass. Electrical energy encased in a Magnetic Field. And they are copying our own Star's processes in a lab on Earth.

Jun 02, 2019
@Castrovagina

Oh by the way, jonesy. How are our favourite Rugby team doing these days? Did they ever get over their big loss? We were hoping they would win at least SOME games this year. Our best to them.

Jun 02, 2019
A Typical Common or Garden Fusion Reactor

SEU
The plasma in Tokamak's is less than a mm in diameter
Where the field coils exerts 6 Tesla
Whereas this plasma exerts 100 Tesla
Whatever is actually taking place in this plasma
100 tesla, created with plasmatic plastic melted by laser
Is a far cry of 6 Tesla created in a typical fusion reactor
Because
Waiting for fusion
In a Typical Common or Garden Fusion Reactor
Is like waiting for Eternity to come to an END
As waiting for Eternity, SEU
Is the same as waiting for Ever

Jun 02, 2019
A Typical Common or Garden Fusion Reactor

SEU
The plasma in Tokamak's is less than a mm in diameter
Where the field coils exerts 6 Tesla
Whereas this plasma exerts 100 Tesla
Whatever is actually taking place in this plasma
100 tesla, created with plasmatic plastic melted by laser
Is a far cry of 6 Tesla created in a typical fusion reactor
Because
Waiting for fusion
In a Typical Common or Garden Fusion Reactor
Is like waiting for Eternity to come to an END
As waiting for Eternity, SEU
Is same as waiting for Ever
says granville

~94 Tesla seems to be missing in the Tokamak ~1mm fusion plasma experiment if it only has 6 Tesla compared with this laser-beam plasma 100 Tesla 4mm magnetic field. Something is amiss, granville. Is it possible that "something" in the Plasma at 100 Tesla was activated by the 20 laser beams that compressed the plasma down to extrude at a higher degree of energy? Some difference between the electric field and the magnetic field energies?

Jun 03, 2019
As this magnetic field clings to its jet

SEU, in this world of Tokamak design
For the field strength
Depends on this jets diameter
There is a direct correlation
Of this jets diameter
Versus the number of tesla in its field
SEU> ~94 Tesla seems to be missing in the Tokamak ~1mm fusion plasma experiment if it only has 6 Tesla compared with this laser-beam plasma 100 Tesla 4mm magnetic field. Something is amiss, granville

In a solenoid
The smaller diameter
The greater the number of tesla for a given coil
Is why, this 4mm length of plasma is 100T
As it is even further compressing
As strands of magnetic spiralling field lines

Whereas
In a Typical Common or Garden Fusion Reactor

The magnetic field coils
By limitations of design
Are a considerable distance from this fusion plasma
So, by necessity of design
Increasing magnetic field diameter
Means, inevitably reducing field strength
Resulting in
A Typical Common or Garden Fusion Reactor is stuck at 6 Tesla

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