A young star caught forming like a planet

December 14, 2018, University of Leeds
Artist's impression of the disc of dust and gas surrounding the massive protostar MM 1a, with its companion MM 1b forming in the outer regions. Credit: J. D. Ilee / University of Leeds

Astronomers have captured one of the most detailed views of a young star taken to date, and revealed an unexpected companion in orbit around it.

While observing the young star, astronomers led by Dr. John Ilee from the University of Leeds discovered it was not in fact one star, but two.

The main object, referred to as MM 1a, is a young massive star surrounded by a rotating disc of gas and dust that was the focus of the scientists' original investigation.

A faint object, MM 1b, was detected just beyond the disc in orbit around MM 1a. The team believe this is one of the first examples of a "fragmented" disc to be detected around a massive young star.

"Stars form within large clouds of gas and dust in ," said Dr. Ilee, from the School of Physics and Astronomy at Leeds.

"When these clouds collapse under gravity, they begin to rotate faster, forming a disc around them. In low like our Sun, it is in these discs that planets can form."

"In this case, the star and disc we have observed is so massive that, rather than witnessing a planet forming in the disc, we are seeing another star being born."

By measuring the amount of radiation emitted by the dust, and subtle shifts in the frequency of light emitted by the gas, the researchers were able to calculate the mass of MM 1a and MM 1b.

Observation of the dust emission (green) and the cool gas around MM1a (red is receding gas, blue is approaching gas), indicating that the outflow cavity rotates in the same sense as the central accretion disc. MM1b is seen orbiting in the lower left. Credit: J. D. Ilee / University of Leeds

Their work, published today in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, found MM 1a weighs 40 times the mass of our Sun. The smaller orbiting star MM 1b was calculated to weigh less than half the mass of our Sun.

"Many older are found with nearby companions," added Dr. Ilee. "But are often very equal in mass, and so likely formed together as siblings. Finding a young binary system with a of 80:1 is very unusual, and suggests an entirely different formation process for both objects."

The favoured formation process for MM 1b occurs in the outer regions of cold, massive discs. These "gravitationally unstable" discs are unable to hold themselves up against the pull of their own gravity, collapsing into one—or more—fragments.

Dr. Duncan Forgan, a co-author from the Centre for Exoplanet Science at the University of St Andrews, added: "I've spent most of my career simulating this process to form giant planets around stars like our Sun. To actually see it forming something as large as a star is really exciting."

The researchers note that newly-discovered young star MM 1b could also be surrounded by its own circumstellar disc, which may have the potential to form planets of its own—but it will need to be quick.

Dr. Ilee added: "Stars as massive as MM 1a only live for around a million years before exploding as powerful supernovae, so while MM 1b may have the potential to form its own planetary system in the future, it won't be around for long."

Observation of the dust emission (green) and hot gas rotating in the disc around MM 1a (red is receding gas, blue is approaching gas). MM 1b is seen the lower left. Credit: J. D. Ilee / University of Leeds.

The astronomers made this surprising discovery by using a unique new instrument situated high in the Chilean desert—the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA).

Using the 66 individual dishes of ALMA together in a process called interferometry, the astronomers were able to simulate the power of a single telescope nearly 4km across, allowing them to image the material surrounding the young stars for the first time.

The team have been granted additional observing time with ALMA to furthercharacterise these exciting stellar systems in 2019. The upcoming observations will simulate a telescope that is 16km across—comparable to the area inside of the ring-road surrounding Leeds.

Explore further: Giant planets around young star raise questions about how planets form

More information: G11.92-0.61 MM1: A Fragmented Keplerian Disk Surrounding a Proto-O Star is published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters 14 December 2018. doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aaeffc , arxiv.org/pdf/1811.05267.pdf

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rrwillsj
3.3 / 5 (7) Dec 14, 2018
Yeah! Gravity Rules!

I was just considering? Pondering? Mulling?

The researchers describe how the local gravity fields are pulling the disk together. Adding velocity to the momentum.

& not a single lightning bolt was sighted!

Got me thinking about the concept of using a spinning ice skater as an available display of how momentum works.

Yet the EUnutters / plasmanuttiers / aethernuttiestofall woo cultists claim that such an event must have been caused by EM action...

& yet, I do not remember ever seeing an ice skater struck by lightning to cause them to spin?

Crap! I just realized that now that someone siriusly rational suggested it?

The woohoo sites will be posting photoshopped pictures of sparking ice skaters. Cause it ain't as if those losers will ever create anything original!
Tuxford
3 / 5 (6) Dec 14, 2018
ound MM 1a weighs 40 times the mass of our Sun. The smaller orbiting star MM 1b was calculated to weigh less than half the mass of our Sun.


So why so much gas and dust surrounding a mature very large star in the first place??? Could it be that it is due to a recent ejection of the new star-forming material therefrom, now condensing into the much smaller companion? Large growing stars grow ever-more rapidly toward instability as they increase in size from newly emergent matter formed deep inside their fertile cores at an ever-increasing pace. Eventually, something has to give, and a companion is formed. This one just has not fully condensed yet. Most others we observe have condensed. Thus, the majority of visible stars have companions, as it is a common process.
jonesdave
3 / 5 (14) Dec 14, 2018
So why so much gas and dust surrounding a mature very large star in the first place???


Comprehension not your strong point, is it? Let's look at the title of the paper, for the hard of thinking;

" A Fragmented Keplerian Disk Surrounding a Proto-O Star."

What does 'proto' mean in whatever universe you live in? What is an O star in said universe? So, put the two together, and what is a proto-O star?

Dickhead.
valeriy_polulyakh
3 / 5 (1) Dec 14, 2018
Star formation is one of the least comprehended phenomenon in astrophysics. Is there a general theory of star formation? No, there is not. There is a number of models based on computer simulations which include supersonic hydrodynamics with non-ideal MHD turbulence influenced by gravity. They include the line and continuum radiative processes of the energy transfer; a number of chemical processes with dissociation, recombination and ionization, with uncertain nomenclature of atoms and molecules, unknown magnetic fields and formation and destruction of dust particles. In addition there is macrophysics that is an environment in the molecular clouds, clumps and cores; inclusion in the multiple systems, collisions among stellar systems; jets and outflows; radiation pressure.
https://www.acade...ormation
https://www.acade...rvations
rrwillsj
3.7 / 5 (3) Dec 14, 2018
There is a very good reason why there are no outstanding theories of stellar & planetary formation.

I wish upon a star, I knew what it is!

So I will settle with restating my Theory of Stupid Design.

The processes for stellar & planetary formation are determined by the serendipitous bedlam of gravitational chaos. Mixing it up with the random cacophony of stochastic Thermodynamics.

There are no rules that are Universal & Eternal. Except for disappointment & failure.
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
2.6 / 5 (5) Dec 14, 2018
There is a very good reason why there are no outstanding theories of stellar & planetary formation.

I wish upon a star, I knew what it is!

So I will settle with restating my Theory of Stupid Design.

The processes for stellar & planetary formation are determined by the serendipitous bedlam of gravitational chaos. Mixing it up with the random cacophony....

There are no rules that are Universal & Eternal. Except for disappointment & failure.

says rrwilliejoe

So you have developed a habit of wishing upon a star? Is that your belief/religion? To each his own, of course. Stellar and planetary formation follow a set of rules/programmes that have been followed since the Beginning. Unless the rules are strictly adhered to, neither planets nor Stars are able to coalesce and form - Stars being in a different category than planets - but both still following the rules of accretion/gathering of materiel to form each kind. Your imagination is chaotic, btw.
rrwillsj
4 / 5 (4) Dec 14, 2018
well segue, since you have cleared that all up?

How about you listing some of those Universal & Eternal Rules that strictly regulates every formation of stars & planets? That never falters or fails? Ever?

Come on segue. we're waiting...

Over there?
Behind the curtain?
Just ignore that one!
It's the Coyote Trickster godling.
{roll my eyes}
That one laughs at all of us.
granville583762
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 15, 2018
Crying wolf

It was all sounding all so believable
till those dreaded words
Simulation
phys.org> Dr. Duncan Forgan, a co-author from the Centre for Exoplanet Science at the University of St Andrews, added: "I've spent most of my career simulating this process to form giant planets around stars like our Sun. To actually see it forming something as large as a star is really exciting."

"I've spent most of my career simulating this process"
as what you say after an observation
has no bearing on the actual observation
simulation has been overly simulated
to the point of of Crying Wolf
as what are we to believe
Dr. Duncan Forgan was a carrear in simulation
or
the observation is true as the simulation claim was a simulation
or
the observation is a simulation
or is the truth closer to simulation
Crying Wolf
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
2 / 5 (4) Dec 15, 2018
well segue, since you have cleared that all up?

How about you listing some of those Universal & Eternal Rules that strictly regulates every formation of stars & planets? That never falters or fails? Ever?

Come on segue. we're waiting...

Over there?
Behind the curtain?
Just ignore that one!
It's the Coyote Trickster godling.
{roll my eyes}
That one laughs at all of us.
says williejoe

You said the above ~20 hours ago. You have been waiting all that time?
Well, as far as I have been privileged to learn about those Rules/Programmes from my instructors - some of the BASICS are known to science already, thus:

1. E=MC2
2. Fibonacci Sequence/Numbers
3. Laws of Thermodynamics
4. Homogeneity and Isotropy
5. Quantum Physics (Pristine Protons, Scrumptious Electrons, Neutrons, Muons, Gluons +++
6. everything Newtonian
7. Gravitational attraction/accretion of dust/gases
These are but some of the recommended requirements/processes of Star and planet formation
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
2 / 5 (4) Dec 15, 2018
@granville
To simulate is to imitate; to pretend; to produce a computer model that is not based on the ACTUAL thing - but only on what is conceived to be.

A career simulator is a "phony baloney plastic banana good time rock'n'roller" - as my favorite radio talk show host, Rush, is wont to say on his program. Good man, that.
:)
Wolves are my favorite animals. And they don't simulate.
Da Schneib
3 / 5 (4) Dec 16, 2018
So can we talk now about the fact that, for the first time ever, we've observed a star forming in the accretion disk of a young star? Or are we going to continue the endless whining butthurt YEC saga?
granville583762
3.4 / 5 (5) Dec 16, 2018
To simulate now is to Avatar
@granville
SEU> To simulate is to imitate; to pretend; to produce a computer model that is not based on the ACTUAL thing - but only on what is conceived to be.
A career simulator is a "phony baloney plastic banana good time rock'n'roller" - as my favorite radio talk show host, Rush, is wont to say on his program. Good man, that

Imitate the appearance or character of
Technically, to "simulate" means artificially reproduce a natural event in a controlled environment
in its misuse, it has a wide range of meanings
to "simulate", no longer means, artificially reproduces a natural event in a controlled environment
we are observing articles portraying naturally occurring events
on further reading, this event has not actually happened,
this event is simulated to happen
An Avatar
cantdrive85
3 / 5 (8) Dec 16, 2018
One more dagger in the heart of the accretion model, but yet the darky gravitists see this as a victory of their non-existent modeling! Their desperation is getting palpable. LOL!
jonesdave
3.2 / 5 (9) Dec 16, 2018
One more dagger in the heart of the accretion model, but yet the darky gravitists see this as a victory of their non-existent modeling! Their desperation is getting palpable. LOL!


Errrr, no it isn't. Lol.
rrwillsj
4 / 5 (4) Dec 16, 2018
Can I watch while you clowns explain to the Leonardo Da Vinci & Galileo & Newton? The uselessness of "modelling" & "simulations"? As paths through the Scientific Method.

& segue, is there a single one of those "Universal & Eternal Rules" you listed. That are considered finished, complete?
That are not beset with random, unpredictability? That are considered unchangeable or unchallenged by scientists?

That were the same Forces before the Big Bang? As after?
Local & Temporary.Think Biggley!
That will not change or maybe even disappear with the Cosmos dissolving into Gravitron Chaos?

I have my arguments with GR/SR/QM. However, I can recognize that those Theories, utilizing the petty effects of EM. Are the basis for all the Modern Technology around me.

As I have repeatedly stated. If you woomongers want to impress me? You'll need to produce a working device based on your EU/aether/spiritualist theology. That can survive the US Patent application process.
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
3 / 5 (4) Dec 17, 2018
@rrwilliejoe

segue, is there a single one of those "Universal & Eternal Rules" you listed. That are considered finished, complete?
That are not beset with random, unpredictability? That are considered unchangeable or unchallenged by scientists?


1. E=MC2 --- possible changes are coming as more data arrives *unless jones nixes it*
2. Fibonacci Sequence ---- complete, unchangeable, pure, unchallengeable
3. Laws of Thermodynamics ---- immutable, unchangeable, very predictable in our galaxy
4. Homogeneity & Isotropy --- unchangeable, pure
5. Quantum Physics --- pristine, unassailable, building blocks of the Universe
6. everything Newtonian --- works fine in our Solar System. gravity, Mass
7. Gravitational attraction/accretion of dust/gases --- Universal, predictable, keeps our feet on the ground
Williejoe - you are one of those who place too much faith in scientists. Why do you think that in many of the articles - scientists say "as previously thought"

Surveillance_Egg_Unit
3 / 5 (4) Dec 17, 2018
@rrwilliejoe et al
The vast majority of "simulations" are based on measurements and even preconceptions, whether accurate or off by a millimetre or three.
So, in the absence of a well-documented, accurate image, the simulation must suffice in order to save face for the scientist(s) who are involved.
Remember - publish or perish. Scientists who haven't published in a long time are often regarded as has-beens, too secretive and stingy with their experimental data, or have died.
If you have noticed - in the space above the comments, there is a box with links to some other articles that are related to this one. A few of those other articles in the box may be by the same scientists/authors as the ones involved in the above article. I have noticed that almost the same wordings are used in those related articles, which proves that the "publish or perish" phenomena is real.
It's not only the topic/authors of this article, but so many others also follow the same publish often route.
rrwillsj
5 / 5 (1) Dec 17, 2018
Well segue, your own words confound you. You are using the methods of simulation to support your claims that your warped similations of science verifies your theology & superstitious beliefs.

Well! My jobs done here. Now on too haunting the next ignorant troll.
LeoVuyk
not rated yet Jan 16, 2019
We always forget that stars with planetary discs are always the result of Herbig Haro systems with TWO equal sized new physics black holes inside the distant "bowshocks" perpendicular to the disc. see: https://bigbang-e...new.html

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