Planet formation starts before star reaches maturity

June 26, 2018, Netherlands Research School for Astronomy
Planet formation starts before star reaches maturity
MC1A is a still developing star in the constellation Taurus. Red are areas with many dust particles. Green and blue are two types of carbon monoxide. The absence of green / blue carbon monoxide in the inner part indicates that dust particles in the young protoplanetary disk have grown from less than a thousandth of a millimeter to a millimeter. Credit: Jørgensen/Harsono/ESASky/ESAC [CC-BY-SA 3.0]

A European team of astronomers has discovered that dust particles around a star already coagulate before the star is fully grown. Dust particle growth is the first step in the formation of planets. The researchers from the Netherlands, Sweden and Denmark publish their findings in Nature Astronomy.

In recent years, astronomers have discovered numerous planetary systems around other . Almost every star is likely to have at least one planet orbiting it. Some of the major questions are centered around how planetary systems form and how this process leads to the observed diversity of in numbers and masses. The results of a European research project suggest that starts very early in the star formation process.

The researchers used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array for their discovery. ALMA is a collection of 66 linked radio telescopes spread over 16 kilometer in the Atacama desert in Chile. The researchers pointed the telescope toward TMC1A, a still developing star in the constellation Taurus (the Bull).

The astronomers saw a striking lack of carbon monoxide radiation in a disc-shaped area near the star. They suspected that the radiation was blocked by big . Using numerical models, they could demonstrate that indeed the dust in the young protoplanetary disk have probably grown from a thousandth of a millimeter to a millimeter.

Planet formation starts before star reaches maturity
Artistic impression of a star with a protoplanetary disk and growing grains. Credit: Daria Dall'Olio [CC-BY-SA 3.0]

Lead researcher Daniel Harsono (Leiden University, the Netherlands) explains why this is so surprising: "The results indicate that planets already start forming while the star is still developing. The star is only half to three-quarters of its final mass. This is new."

Per Bjerkeli (Chalmers University, Sweden) highlights the implication of early grain growth: "It can be an explanation for the formation of giant planets that are comparable to Jupiter and Saturn. Only early protoplanetary discs contain sufficient mass to form ."

Co-researcher Matthijs van der Wiel (ASTRON, Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy) is pleased with the clear and unambiguous observations. "This early particle growth could be an exception, of course. Maybe this young disk is very special."

In the future, the researchers want to look for tell-tale signs of planet formation around other protostars in similar manner. Ultimately, the astronomers want to know more about when and how planets are formed.

Explore further: New and improved way to find baby planets

More information: Daniel Harsono et al. Evidence for the start of planet formation in a young circumstellar disk, Nature Astronomy (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41550-018-0497-x

Related Stories

New and improved way to find baby planets

June 14, 2018

New work from an international team of astronomers including Carnegie's Jaehan Bae used archival radio telescope data to develop a new method for finding very young extrasolar planets. Their technique successfully confirmed ...

Rings and gaps in a developing planetary system

April 2, 2018

The discovery of an exoplanet has most often resulted from the monitoring of a star's flicker (the transiting method) or its wobble (the radial velocity method). Discovery by direct imaging is rare because it is so difficult ...

Dusty protoplanetary disks

December 8, 2017

Planetary systems form out of disks of gas and dust around young stars. How the formation proceeds, however, is complex and poorly understood. Many physical processes are involved including accretion onto the star, photoevaporation ...

ALMA reveals planetary construction sites

December 16, 2015

Astronomers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have found the clearest indications yet that planets with masses several times that of Jupiter have recently formed in the discs of gas and dust around ...

ALMA spots possible formation site of icy giant planet

September 14, 2016

Astronomers found signs of a growing planet around TW Hydra, a nearby young star, using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Based on the distance from the central star and the distribution of tiny dust ...

Recommended for you

A new neptune-size exoplanet

December 16, 2018

The remarkable exoplanet discoveries made by the Kepler and K2 missions have enabled astronomers to begin to piece together the history of the Earth and to understand how and why it differs from its diverse exoplanetary cousins. ...

Mars InSight lander seen in first images from space

December 14, 2018

On Nov. 26, NASA's InSight mission knew the spacecraft touched down within an 81-mile-long (130-kilometer-long) landing ellipse on Mars. Now, the team has pinpointed InSight's exact location using images from HiRISE, a powerful ...

Video: Enjoying the Geminids from above and below

December 14, 2018

On the night of December 13, into the morning of December 14, 2018, tune into the night sky for a dazzling display of fireballs. Thanks to the International Space Station, this sky show – the Geminids meteor shower—will ...

24 comments

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

wduckss
1.5 / 5 (8) Jun 26, 2018
Europeans copied by Europeans!
A growth starts from the smaller towards the bigger, from particles towards the grain of sand, then towards a rock, a planetoid, a planet, a dwarf star, towards young and then old stars, towards the central galactic structures, the universe, a group of universes, a group of groups of the universes, ... http://www.svemir....html#8c etc
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
2.3 / 5 (12) Jun 27, 2018
"Lead researcher Daniel Harsono (Leiden University, the Netherlands) explains why this is so surprising: "The results indicate that planets already start forming while the star is still developing. The star is only half to three-quarters of its final mass. This is new."

In the Bible, in Genesis1 it is said In the beginning, that the Earth was dark and void but there was water in the deep. The planet had already existed while at the same time the Star (Sun) wasn't ignited and providing light yet. And much later, God the Creator ignited the Sun as well as other stars. The Moon provided light at night.
I notice some similarities there.
Da Schneib
3.5 / 5 (6) Jun 27, 2018
Yeah, right, jebus made all the planets and the writers of the Babble weren't drunken Stone Age sheep herders.

Pull the other leg, @Bigot_Egg_Unit, that one's getting tired.
wduckss
1.7 / 5 (6) Jun 27, 2018
"And God said: Let it be light, "First light" in the universe was roughly 380,000 years after the Big Bang "
The devil is angry, and the light goes out, "the universe entered a dark age".
Happy ending.
God "occurred between 150 million years and 650 million years after the Big Bang" wins after the creation, "when the first stars and galaxies were formed from collapsing groups of gas, producing light in the universe again." Space.com
Although, God finishes his work and goes to sleep, creation is continued. Still discussing whom to attribute to the formation of the body:God, the devil, or the offspring. The vast majority agree that these are the secondary (tertiary) effects of God.
And God said: Let it be light, "First light" in the universe was roughly 380,000 years after the Big Bang "
The devil is angry, and the light goes out, "the universe entered a dark age".
Happy ending." https://www.unexp...e-light/
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
2.2 / 5 (10) Jun 27, 2018
@Ducks

The truth is that the first five books, the Pentateuch, have some errors in it, which confuses readers, causing them to doubt the veracity of the Bible. It was the Angels who gave Moses the information to write down, in accordance with the Creator's wishes. However, Moses had little knowledge of Earth or universal matters. How could he have known back in those days? Therefore, what he wrote down that was to be the first book, Genesis, was a misinterpretation and in the wrong sequence of events of what the Angels had actually dictated. I am writing a manuscript about this and hope to have it published by the end of the year.

jonesdave
3.4 / 5 (10) Jun 27, 2018
@Ducks

The truth is that the first five books, the Pentateuch, have some errors in it, which confuses readers, causing them to doubt the veracity of the Bible. It was the Angels who gave Moses the information to write down, in accordance with the Creator's wishes. However, Moses had little knowledge of Earth or universal matters. How could he have known back in those days? Therefore, what he wrote down that was to be the first book, Genesis, was a misinterpretation and in the wrong sequence of events of what the Angels had actually dictated. I am writing a manuscript about this and hope to have it published by the end of the year.



Angels? Really? You can't seriously believe that piffle, surely?
FredJose
1 / 5 (6) Jun 27, 2018
Therefore, what he wrote down that was to be the first book, Genesis, was a misinterpretation and in the wrong sequence of events of what the Angels had actually dictated.

RIGHT..>....>!!
So now after all these millennia, @Ducks finally has it all cleared up for us. The truth at last!
So many poor souls have gone to the grave in the mistaken belief that God spoke directly to Moses and that Genesis 1 was exactly easy to understand without any need for a genius re-interpreting it.

How about giving us a re-interpretation of Exodus 20:8-11 or Exodus 31:17 whilst you're at it?
FredJose
1.4 / 5 (10) Jun 27, 2018
@Ducks - the bible is clear that first there was an expansion - a separation of waters and it was INTO that expansion that God placed the stars and other heavenly bodies.
Therefore, the earth came before ANY other body under heaven.
Therefore, the sun was nowhere to be found until the fourth day.

Which also means that the nebular theory of planetary formation is quite simply WRONG.
It is also wrong just on the sheer physical and mechanical requirements that demand that planets form via aggregation from dust clouds around stars.
Given the extreme masses and physical forces involved, plus the impossible compositions required for most planets, it will be an impossible task for the scientists to show how any planet can "evolve" from the dust particles they've just described. Good luck to them!
SCVGoodToGo
3 / 5 (4) Jun 27, 2018
Between creationists, the EU crowd dutch-ruddering each other and frothing political diatribe, I think we've reached a point where comments need to be disabled on this site.
rrwillsj
3.7 / 5 (6) Jun 27, 2018
I read somewhere that the Sumerians have gone to the Time Travel Court. Suing the judeo-christian-muslim conartists for plagiarizing the Sumerian Holy Scriptures.

Demanding extra damages because the j-c-m sheepbuggerers have totally screwed up the translations into raving stupid.
wduckss
5 / 5 (3) Jun 27, 2018
@FredJose
The text at https://www.unexp...ries.com is a parody of creation in the Bible. Always first look at the suggested link before commenting.
theredpill
5 / 5 (5) Jun 27, 2018
"Between creationists, the EU crowd dutch-ruddering each other and frothing political diatribe, I think we've reached a point where comments need to be disabled on this site."

That was supposed to be a "5" rating...apologies.

Da Schneib
2.8 / 5 (6) Jun 27, 2018
@Bigot_Meat_Unit of course turns out to be a religionist fundie nutjob. These individuals will believe anything as long as it says jebus did everything. Quite the opposite of science. Not to mention morality; this one is satisfied with fucking brown babies and thinks jebus said so, and thinks relativity is wrong because Einstein was Jewish. Typical fundie crank.
theredpill
4 / 5 (7) Jun 27, 2018
"These individuals will believe anything as long as it says jebus did everything. Quite the opposite of science."

You do realize that there is as much about biblical theory that is testable as there is about BH theory and bb theory that is testable I hope...but I rated your comment a "1" because you just called a poster here a religious sexual predator nutjob and somehow claimed that Jesus told him to do so....what the hell is wrong with you?
rrwillsj
3 / 5 (4) Jun 27, 2018
trp, uhhmm DS is striving for honesty and accurate facts. Sorely lacking among the stuporstitious.
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
3.4 / 5 (5) Jun 28, 2018
@Ducks

The truth is that the first five books, the Pentateuch, have some errors in it, which confuses readers, causing them to doubt the veracity of the Bible. It was the Angels who gave Moses the information to write down, in accordance with the Creator's wishes. However, Moses had little knowledge of Earth or universal matters. How could he have known back in those days? Therefore, what he wrote down that was to be the first book, Genesis, was a misinterpretation and in the wrong sequence of events of what the Angels had actually dictated. I am writing a manuscript about this and hope to have it published by the end of the year.



Angels? Really? You can't seriously believe that piffle, surely?

says Jones

Angels do exist, whether you like it or not. Your human eyes are not able to see them and your other senses can't detect their presence, so you deny their existence without evidence to negate their existence. How short-sighted of you.
Surveillance_Egg_Unit
4 / 5 (4) Jun 28, 2018
The title of the article is: "Planet formation starts before star reaches maturity".
The article itself concerns the genesis of planetary formation even while the local Star is still in its formative stage. This is being observed by the researchers while utilising powerful telescopes. What they are seeing is akin to the descriptions in the first book of the Bible - the propagation of a planetary system even while the Sun is still in its infancy and has not attained ignition. There are similarities and that is what I was referring to in my post. Ducks has his own ideas wrt biblical history. Fred Jose obviously is in favor of the 6-day Creation, while I reject it.

But the article's title and its content evokes a comparison to biblical history, and the comments regarding the book of Genesis are justified.
rrwillsj
1 / 5 (1) Jun 28, 2018
So S_E_U, the truth comes out. You are confessing that you are not human? That makes you an illegal alien. Interesting.....

I'm sure the dumpster fire's ICE goons have a cage waiting with you name on it.

Hmm, not human? Ooo, an opportunity for vivisection! Can we televise this one live(rimshot)? So no one can later claim that your disassembly was just another f/xed fraud?
torbjorn_b_g_larsson
4 / 5 (4) Jun 29, 2018
Planets, planets, everywhere planets...

You do realize that there is as much about biblical theory that is testable as there is about BH theory and bb theory that is testable I hope...


Exactly, LIGO has tested black hole theory as never before, and these religious texts are erroneous myth (what else). In the last decade magic ideas such as religion - think just so, and you may get an "afterlife" - have been robustly rejected by evidence.

Cosmology now shows that the universe is all there is and that < 1/1000 uncertainty is either measure error or "magic doing work". Particle physics is the 3d science behind medicine and evolution that rejects "afterlife"/"soul" ideas - but does so at 5 sigma. (Too many synapses in a human brain to snapshot at death, even if the architecture had been copied in advance.)

But the religious goes on - as does the similarly oblivious EU crowd - to believe that humans has not now killed their 'gods' for good. "The stupid, it burns."
TheGhostofOtto1923
3.7 / 5 (3) Jun 30, 2018
So now after all these millennia, @Ducks finally has it all cleared up for us. The truth at last!
So many poor souls have gone to the grave in the mistaken belief that God spoke directly to Moses
He did. He told moses to read the Enuma Elish and just copy that.

No, seriously, ask any jew how they got the Torah.

"the Torah was dictated from God to Moses, letter-for-letter. From there, the Midrash (Devarim Rabba 9:4) tells us that prior to his death, Moses wrote 13 scrolls. Twelve of these were distributed to each of the Twelve Tribes. The thirteenth was placed in the Ark of the Covenant (with the stone Tablets). If anyone would come and attempt to rewrite or falsify the Torah, the one in the Ark would "testify" against him."
cont>
TheGhostofOtto1923
3.7 / 5 (3) Jun 30, 2018
But then ask any rational, informed person and you might get a different anwer

"By the 19th century scholars almost universally accepted that the Book of Deuteronomy dated not from the time of Moses but from the 7th century BCE, and that the Pentateuch as a whole had been compiled by unknown editors from various originally distinct source-documents."

-which, when added to an overwhelming preponderance of similar evidence, including the archeological record, tells us that the whole thing was a glorious sham.
You do realize that there is as much about biblical theory that is testable
Of COURSE its TESTABLE. By thousands of archeologists for instance who have been digging for a century in the desert and have come to the inescapable conclusion that those events never happened and those people never existed.

Any science derived from such a book has to be bogus.
FredJose
1 / 5 (2) Jul 03, 2018
@Surveillance_Egg_Unit
But the article's title and its content evokes a comparison to biblical history, and the comments regarding the book of Genesis are justified.

I guess we will continue to disagree on this issue.
However, I am sticking to the biblical text as clearly and plainly understood. In that sequence it totally negates the whole big bang model in that absolutely zero stars existed before the earth, including our sun. "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth" and only later after the separation of waters did He place the heavenly bodies we know as stars into what is called the sky. Just on this sequence alone, the theistic evolutionary theory bites the dust, nevermind the whole negation of the actual purpose of the bible: The gospel regarding the true nature of the kingdom of God and our promised everlasting life. Adhering to the big bang puts death before sin and makes a mockery of why Jesus came. The inconsistencies tear the bible apart.
FredJose
1 / 5 (1) Jul 03, 2018
@GhostofOtto
Of COURSE its TESTABLE. By thousands of archeologists for instance who have been digging for a century in the desert and have come to the inescapable conclusion that those events never happened and those people never existed.
Based on faulty timelines.....!
Well, just as normal operational scientific discoveries and theories get revisited and sometimes radically re-interpreted, we are getting to the point where many archeologists are beginning to question the cast-in-concrete timelines allocated to the Egyptian dynasties. They are realising just how detrimental it is to the rest of the historical timeline and are beginning to question it.

The biblical timeline is the one that makes the most sense and removes huge black holes of mystery from the current histories of many nations that is based on the faulty Egyptian timeline.
New events in time will once again validate the solid truth contained in the bible.
SCVGoodToGo
3 / 5 (2) Jul 03, 2018
Holy sh!t Fred, I can't tell if you're serious or a REALLY good troll.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.