Mini-detectors for the gigantic? Bose-Einstein condensates are currently not able to detect gravitational waves

December 13, 2018, Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
The illustration shows how two black holes merge. This causes gravitational waves to emerge. Credit: LIGO / T. Pyle

The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. Their effects, however, are so small that they can only be observed using kilometer-long measurement facilities. Physicists are therefore discussing whether ultracold and miniscule Bose-Einstein condensates with their ordered quantum properties could also detect these waves. Prof. Ralf Schützhold from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and the TU Dresden has studied the basis of these suggestions and writes in the journal Physical Review D that such evidence is far beyond the reach of current methods.

As early as 1916, Albert Einstein submitted an article to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in which he demonstrated that moving masses such as giant stars orbiting each other leave behind a dent in space and time, which spreads at the speed of light. These dents are known as gravitational waves, and should move precisely like , light and other . The effects of gravitational waves, however, are normally so weak that Einstein was convinced that they could never be measured.

The reason for this skepticism is that gravitational waves are weak. For example, even the quite large mass of the Earth, which orbits the sun at almost 30 kilometers per second, produces gravitational waves with a power of merely three hundred watts. That wouldn't even be enough to power a commercial vacuum cleaner with an Energy Star label. The influence of these gravitational waves is therefore imperceptible.

When Black Holes Merge

The situation improves when considerably larger masses are involved. When two huge merged at a distance of 1.3 billion light years from Earth, of which one possessed the mass of approximately 36 suns and the other a mass of 29 suns, space and time trembled. During this merger, a mass that measured three times that of our sun transformed into a gigantic gravitational wave, whose remnants reached Earth 1.3 billion years later on September 14th, 2015, at 11:51 AM Central European Time. Because the waves propagate in all directions over such enormous distances and spread to an unimaginably large space, their power was hugely diminished.

On Earth, only an extremely weak signal was received, which was registered using two four-kilometer-long perpendicular vacuum tubes in the United States. Two special laser beams shoot back and forth between the end points of these facilities. From the time required for one light beam to reach the other end, the researchers can very precisely calculate the distance between the two points. "As the gravitational waves reached Earth, they shortened one of the two measurement distances by a tiny fraction of a trillionth of a millimeter at both facilities, while the other perpendicular stretch was extended by a similar amount," says HZDR researcher Ralf Schützhold, outlining his colleagues' results. Therefore, on February 11th, 2016, following a detailed analysis of the data, the researchers reported the first direct detection of the gravitational waves predicted by Albert Einstein. Three of the contributing researchers were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 2017.

Atoms in Synchronization

Astrophysicists can now use these waves to observe massive events in space, such as black hole mergers or supernovas. Physicists are now asking whether it's possible to build facilities that are easier to deal with than the four-kilometer-long perpendicular vacuum tubes. Some suggest using Bose-Einstein condensates, a form of matter that Satyendranath Bose and Albert Einstein predicted back in 1924. "Such condensates can be thought of as heavily diluted vapor from that are cooled to the extreme and therefore condense," explains Schützhold. Researchers in the United States created a Bose-Einstein in 1995.

At extremely low temperatures, only very slightly above the absolute zero of minus 273.15 degrees Celsius, most atoms of metals such as rubidium exist in the same quantum state, forming a chaotic hodgepodge as vapor at higher temperatures. "Similar to laser light particles, the atoms of these Bose-Einstein condensates move, so to speak, in synchronization," says Schützhold. Gravitational waves, however, can change sound particles or sound quanta, which physicists call phonons, within synchronized atom condensates. "This is a bit similar to a big vat of water in which waves generated by an earthquake change the existing water waves," says Ralf Schützhold, describing the process.

Little Evidence is too Little

However, when the head of HZDR's Theoretical Physics Department took a closer look at the fundamentals of this phenomenon, he ascertained that such Bose-Einstein condensates had to be several orders of magnitude larger than is currently possible in order to detect gravitational waves emanating from merging black holes. "Today, Bose-Einstein condensates with, for example, 1 million rubidium atoms are obtained with great effort, but it would take far more than a million times that number of atoms to detect gravitational waves," says Schützhold. However, a kind of vortex is formed within a Bose-Einstein condensate in which gravitational waves directly generate phonons that are more easily observable. "But even with such inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates, we are still orders of magnitude from detecting gravitational waves," says the physicist.

The HZDR researcher nevertheless provides a hint as to possible proof: If the noble gas helium is cooled down to less than two degrees above absolute zero, a superfluid liquid is formed that is not a pure Bose-Einstein condensate, but contains just under 10 percent of such synchronized helium atoms. Because much larger quantities of this superfluid helium can be produced, many orders of magnitude more Bose-Einstein condensate atoms can be created this way than with direct production. "Whether is really a way to detect gravitational waves can only be shown with extremely complex calculations," says Schützhold. The mini-detectors for still therefore lie some time in the future.

Explore further: A Bose-Einstein condensate has been produced in space for the first time

More information: Ralf Schützhold, Interaction of a Bose-Einstein condensate with a gravitational wave, Physical Review D (2018). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.98.105019

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malapropism
4.3 / 5 (3) Dec 13, 2018
I wondered if one of the actual physics people who comment here could explain to me how this comes about, because it is confusing:
...one [black hole] possessed the mass of approximately 36 suns and the other a mass of 29 suns ... [d]uring this merger, a mass that measured three times that of our sun transformed into a gigantic gravitational wave, whose remnants reached Earth ...

From other articles published at the time of this detection, the resulting merged BH seems to have been detected as 36+29-3 solar masses, i.e. the 3 solar masses detected as gravitational waves derived directly from the merged BHs as conversion of some of their mass-energy.

However, wouldn't his converted mass-energy have been within each (and then the merged) event horizon, and, if gravity behaves similarly to light, not have been able to achieve escape velocity for us to detect it?

Thanks in advance...
torbjorn_b_g_larsson
5 / 5 (3) Dec 14, 2018
However, wouldn't his converted mass-energy have been within each (and then the merged) event horizon, and, if gravity behaves similarly to light, not have been able to achieve escape velocity for us to detect it?


Good question!

I am not a specialist in general relativity, but bear with my naive understanding: as you described, in the 11 mergers resulting in black hole candidates, some 10 % of incoming mass is converted to outgoing gravitational wave energy. Either black holes, or in one case neutron star, binaries have been seen, we are still waiting for the rarer mixed black hole/neutron star merger.

If you look at the merger simulations, they do a good job of describing it. The spinning pair gets distorted by their mutual gravity and spin effects as they near the collision, and the asymmetry creates space time curvature changes around them. After merger the curvature settles into a stable configuration, and the excess potential energy is radiated away.
Da Schneib
3 / 5 (2) Dec 14, 2018

From other articles published at the time of this detection, the resulting merged BH seems to have been detected as 36+29-3 solar masses,
Nope. 36+29 *-* 3. Energy doesn't come out of nowhere.

As far as gravity goes, apparently (and this is not only observational but GRT theoretical as well), it's one of the forces capable of traversing the EH. EM is also capable of this as otherwise a black hole could not be electrically charged. And there is both observational and theoretical evidence for this as well.
Da Schneib
3 / 5 (2) Dec 14, 2018
Oh, and BTW, detecting GWs calls for large structures, not small ones. That's why kilometers-long experiments are required, not BECs that are at most micrometers wide. This is duh ummm.
granville583762
4 / 5 (4) Dec 14, 2018
Gravity is theorised to be space falling in at C
malapropism> one BH possessed the mass of approximately 36 suns and the other a mass of 29 suns during this merger, a mass that measured three times that of our sun transformed into a gigantic gravitational wave, whose remnants reached Earth
From other articles published at the time of this detection, the resulting merged BH seems to have been detected as 36+29-3 solar masses, i.e. the 3 solar masses detected as gravitational waves derived directly from the merged BHs as conversion of some of their mass-energy.
However, wouldn't his converted mass-energy have been within each (and then the merged) event horizon, and, if gravity behaves similarly to light, not have been able to achieve escape velocity for us to detect it? Thanks in advance.

Gravity travels at C
is space falling in at C
Light is falling in at C
Light and gravity is space falling in at C
by definition
Gravity does not reach earth
tallenglish
not rated yet Dec 18, 2018
Gravity (Graviton) and Time (Tachyon) should be the 4D force carriers between 3D and 5D, just as we have Photons, Gluons and W+/-, Z for 2D force carriers between 1D and 3D.

HOWEVER, we don't need new particles - a meson of Charm/Strange (which is 4D) along with the combination spin, charge, mass, etc will do the same job. They can even carry normal 3D mass as well if they form a baryon.

Ground is Spin -1 (1D Strings), 4x2D Force Carriers (Photon/Gluon/W,Z), Mass is Spin 0 (3D Matter - r,g,b Space, white Time), 4D Force Carriers (Charm/Strange Mesons + Muon/Neutrino), Mass at Spin 1 (5D Matter), 6D Force Carriers (We only go up to 5D top/bottom so not sure what to start calling these - but they will be 2x3D but there will be 8 of them) then 7D Mass at Spin 2 - that then has a link back to 3D.

Force Carriers go 4x2^1D (Gauge Bosons, combo of charge/Momentum), 4x2^2D (Gauge Mesons combo of r,g,b,w charge/momentum), 2^3D (Gauge 4-quark, 7 colour+combo white).
tallenglish
not rated yet Dec 18, 2018
What got me with my theory is Space (r,g,b) and Time (light) to us or 3D+1T is actually seen as -1iD-3iT to us when viewing DM. I.e. DM Space looks like time to us, DM time is space to us.

Do as DM expands its own time (which looks like space to us) it is actually stretching or compressing space to us - [r,g,b] time for DM is equal to [r,g,b] space to us - except charge/spin are also reversed as well as sign ==> E.g. +1->-i->-1->+i one way as it also goes -i->+1->+i->-1 - or the equivilents to +/- time charge/spin) .

Black hole creation makes new DM (or it pushes energy beyond Spin -2 from 1D strings to make -i.DM from +1.RM - aka it goes backwards in time). However both the local mass of the black hole we can "see" is both stopper for any dark matter to decay as per the normal direction of time.

Black holes entangle spacetimes (RM) and timespaces (DM) - so time and space become very odd beyond the 2D horizon we can currently understand as it could be 4D, 6D+ behind it.

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