Making carbon nanotubes as usable as common plastics

May 15, 2018 by Amanda Morris, Northwestern University
Four continuous states of (a) carbon nanotube powders in cresol-based solvent: (b) a dilute dispersion for casting thin films, (c) a thick paste for blading coating, painting, screen printing or composite making, (d) a self-standing gel for 3D printing, and finally (e) a kneadable dough that can be readily transformed into various shapes. Credit: Jiaxing Huang Group, Northwestern University

Northwestern University's Jiaxing Huang is ready to reignite carbon nanotube research. And he's doing so with a common chemical that was once used in household cleaners.

By using an inexpensive, already mass produced, simple solvent called cresol, Huang has discovered a way to make disperse carbon at unprecedentedly high concentrations without the need for additives or harsh chemical reactions to modify the nanotubes. In a surprising twist, Huang also found that as the nanotubes' concentrations increase, the material transitions from a dilute dispersion to a thick paste, then a free-standing gel and finally a kneadable dough that can be shaped and molded.

The study was published online on May 14 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

"Because of their exceptional mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, carbon nanotubes have attracted a lot of attention for a number of applications," said Huang, professor of materials science and engineering in Northwestern's McCormick School of Engineering. "But after decades of research and development, some of the excitement has faded."

The reason? Carbon nanotubes are notoriously tricky to process—especially in large quantities. About 10,000 times thinner than a human hair, the wiry, tube-shaped structures are said to be stronger than steel and conduct heat and electricity far better than copper. But when mass produced—usually in the form of powders—the tubes twist and clump together. This complication is a major barrier to the material's widespread applications.

The carbon nanotube-based dough can be transformed into arbitrary shapes, such as a freestanding strip by cold rolling. Credit: Jiaxing Huang Group, Northwestern University

"Aggregated tubes are hard to disperse in solvents," Huang said. "And if you cannot get a good dispersion, then you won't be able to make high-quality nanotube thin films that many applications rely on."

In order to bypass this problem, previous researchers used additives to coat the nanotubes, which chemically altered their surfaces and forced them to separate. Although these methods do work, they leave behind residues or alter the nanotubes' surface structures, which can blunt their desirable properties.

By contrast, Huang's team found that cresol does not deteriorate carbon nanotubes' surface functions. And, after separating the entangled tubes, researchers can simply remove the chemical by washing it off or heating it until it evaporates.

The carbon nanotube-based dough can be transformed into arbitrary shapes defined by a mold. Credit: Jiaxing Huang Group, Northwestern University

Finding unexpected kneads

After unlocking a new way to make carbon nanotubes in higher and higher concentrations, Huang and his team discovered new forms of the material. As the concentration of carbon nanotubes increases, the material transitions from a dilute dispersion to a spreadable paste to a free-standing gel and finally to a kneadable dough. These various forms can be molded, reshaped or used as conductive ink for 3-D printing.

"The dough state of nanotubes is fascinating," said Kevin Chiou, a graduate student in Huang's laboratory and first author of the paper. "It can be readily shaped and molded into arbitrary structures just like playdough."

"Essentially, this solvent system now makes nanotubes behave just like polymers," Huang said. "It is really exciting to see cresol-based solvents make once hard-to-process nanotubes as usable as common plastics."

Explore further: A new method developed for measuring carbon nanotubes

More information: Kevin Chiou et al, Additive-free carbon nanotube dispersions, pastes, gels, and doughs in cresols, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1800298115

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Parsec
not rated yet May 15, 2018
Can you say very conductive 3d printer material? Be a boon for the 3d printing industry. The material they have now is pathetic and almost unusable because of its contact resistance.
dnatwork
5 / 5 (1) May 15, 2018
I was thinking roll-to-roll printing, or blow-molds.
eachus
4 / 5 (4) May 15, 2018
This is not something that you want in your home. The resulting product may be, but cresol is neurotoxic (all three isomers). It is the antifungal in creosote and also why you should wear gloves when handling creosoted wood.

In an industrial process, circuits could be 3d printed, dried, and the cresol solvent recovered and reused. Same with the other versions. As long as the drying is thorough, and people working with the material are trained and protected, wonderful product. In fact, I have to wonder whether it can be used with multi-centimeter long carbon nanotubes to extrude cables. (Well, you would actually extrude threads and wind them immediately into cables, but you get the idea.) You could also weave clothes out of the threads...
Whydening Gyre
not rated yet May 15, 2018
.. You could also weave clothes out of the threads...

Bullet-proof t-shirts?
mackita
1 / 5 (1) May 16, 2018
, but cresol is neurotoxic (all three isomers). It is the antifungal in creosote and also why you should wear gloves when handling creosoted wood.
Nanotubes are vitamin neither - they're as carcionogenic as azbestos and another nanofiber materials.
eachus
not rated yet May 17, 2018
.. You could also weave clothes out of the threads...

Bullet-proof t-shirts?

Could be made, but the only real advantage would be that it would make it easy to remove the bullet. If you look at "bulletproof vests" you will see that they are stiff, and thick. Stiff so it doesn't fold up around the bullet, thick to allow a (short) stopping distance. If it were too thin, think sheet metal, the shock transmitted would do a lot of damage. Getting hit in a bulletproof vest may feel like getting hit with a baseball bat, at least with a large caliber weapon. But you don't end up with broken bones and out of the fight.

Thinking about it though, hunting jackets for bird hunting and the like, could be made comfortable, and prevent you from becoming a pincushion in a shooting accident.
eachus
1 / 5 (2) May 17, 2018
Nanotubes are vitamin neither - they're as carcionogenic as azbestos and another nanofiber materials.


Is cat hair carcinogenic? Seriously, if you looked at what I was proposing, it was not inhaling SWNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes), but making clothing out of nanotubes woven into threads. This would make threads very similar to polyester, except that they would be all carbon, no hydrogen.

It 's always possible that someone would dye the threads with some carcinogenic material. But the people fishing for research grants to study the toxicity of nanotubes, graphene, etc., are just being silly. How much pencil "lead" did you get on your hands in grade school? All graphene, which is unrolled nanotubes.

As for asbestos and people, that's been sorted out in legal cases over the decades. Asbestos is not in and of itself harmful. But breathing asbestos then smoking is much worse (higher lung cancer rates, lower survival rates) than smoking without the asbestos.
mackita
not rated yet May 17, 2018
But the people fishing for research grants to study the toxicity of nanotubes, graphene, etc., are just being silly.. Is cat hair carcinogenic?
LOL - so that the scientists revealing carcinogens are silly - and the people fishing for research grants to push them into environment aren't?

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