Improving earthquake resistance with a single crystal

August 31, 2017, Tohoku University
Heat treatment causing a grain to rapidly grow into a large single crystal. Credit: Toshihiro Omori (via Nature Communications)

A new heating method for certain metals could lead to improved earthquake-resistant construction materials.

Tohoku University researchers and colleagues have found an economical way to improve the properties of some '' metals, known for their ability to return to their original shape after being deformed. The method could make way for the mass production of these improved metals for a variety of applications, including earthquake-resistant construction materials.

Most metals are made of a large number of crystals but, in some cases, their properties improve when they are formed of a single crystal. However, single-crystal metals are expensive to produce.

Researchers have developed a cheaper production method that takes advantage of a phenomenon known as 'abnormal grain growth.' By using this method, a metal's multiple 'grains', or crystals, grow irregularly, some at the expense of others, when it is exposed to heat.

The team's technique involves several cycles of heating and cooling that results in a single-crystal metal bar 70 centimetres in length and 15 millimetres in diameter. This is very large compared to the sizes of current bars, making it suitable for building and civil engineering applications, says Toshihiro Omori, the lead researcher in the study.

This bending test of a copper-aluminium-manganese single-crystal bar (68 cm in length and 16 mm in diameter) produced by cyclic heat treatment shows a super-elastic response with almost no residual strain. Credit: Toshihiro Omori (via Nature Communications)

To produce the large single-crystal metal bar, a metal alloy is heated to 900°C then cooled to 500°C, five times. This is followed by four cycles of heating to 740°C then cooling to 500°C. Finally, the metal is heated one last time to 900°C. Omitting the lower temperature heating (740°C)/cooling (500°C) cycles did not lead to the single-crystal result.

The alloy they used, which is made of copper, aluminium and manganese, is a well-known shape memory that is easy to cut with machines. Increasing the size of the material's crystals drastically enhances its elasticity. Altering its shape also makes it quite strong. These combined features make it very attractive for building structures that can withstand earthquakes.

"Since the present technique is advantageous for of because of the simplicity of the process, this finding opens the way for applications of shape memory single crystals for structural materials, such as for seismic applications in buildings and bridges," conclude the researchers in their study published in the journal Nature Communications.

Explore further: Bendable crystals tie current thinking in knots

More information: Tomoe Kusama et al, Ultra-large single crystals by abnormal grain growth, Nature Communications (2017). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-00383-0

Related Stories

Researchers push metals to their limits

June 29, 2017

Modern aircraft and power generation turbines depend on precision-machined parts that can withstand harsh mechanical forces in high-temperature environments. In many cases, higher operating temperatures lead to more efficient ...

Japanese material scientists develop new superelastic alloy

July 1, 2011

(PhysOrg.com) -- Working out of Tokyo University, scientists in the Department of Materials Science, have developed a new metal alloy that unlike other “superelastic” alloys can resume its original shape in temperatures ...

Large single-crystal graphene is possible

July 26, 2017

Thanks to its conductivity, strength and flexibility, graphene is considered as one of the most likely substitutes for silicon and other materials. However, it has not yet resulted in industrial applications. High-quality ...

Recommended for you

How a particle may stand still in rotating spacetime

May 25, 2018

When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. In a new paper, physicists have shown that ...

Long live the doubly charmed particle

May 25, 2018

Finding a new particle is always a nice surprise, but measuring its characteristics is another story and just as important. Less than a year after announcing the discovery of the particle going by the snappy name of Ξcc++ (Xicc++), ...

How can you tell if a quantum memory is really quantum?

May 23, 2018

Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. But often it's difficult to tell whether a memory ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.