Converting carbon dioxide to methane using iron and sunlight

July 20, 2017 by Bob Yirka report
Sketch of the proposed mechanism for CO2 reduction to CH4 by catalyst 1. Credit: Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature23016

(Phys.org)—A combined team of researchers from Université Paris Diderot in France and Universidad Nacional de Córdoba in Argentina has discovered a reaction process that can be used to convert carbon dioxide to methane. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes their technique, how well it worked, and their ideas for improving it.

As human endeavors continue to introduce carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, leading to , scientists around the world seek alternative ways to reduce both the amount of the gas emitted into the air and the amount that is already there. In this new effort, the researchers have developed a chemical process that involves doing both at the same time—by converting carbon dioxide into , which can be burned to use as a greener energy source.

The technique involves irradiating a carbon dioxide solution of acetonitrile, which has a single electron to donate, a photosensitizer and a catalyst that has an iron tetraphenylporphyrin compound that has been functionalized with tetraphenylporphyrin groups. Irradiation by sunlight continues for several hours. The process leads to the creation of methane, carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

The researchers acknowledge that the process is grossly inefficient because the product produced is actually 82 percent carbon monoxide. It is also very slow, producing just 12 grams of methane per hour. But the team believes it can be made much more efficient using a revised two-step procedure. This is because they noticed that what was actually occurring was a conversion of initial ingredients to a mostly carbon monoxide product, some of which was then converted to methane. The researchers note that they also used pure dioxide for their tests, from a canister. An improved process would have to include first pulling the gas from the air, while also keeping out impurities.

The team also has plans to better understand what actually occurs during the reactions—they know the iron binds to the during the first part of the process, but it is still not clear how hydrogenation of the molecule occurs.

Explore further: New photocatalyst speeds up the conversion of carbon dioxide into chemical resources

More information: Heng Rao et al. Visible-light-driven methane formation from CO2 with a molecular iron catalyst, Nature (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nature23016

Abstract
Converting CO2 into fuel or chemical feedstock compounds could in principle reduce fossil fuel consumption and climate-changing CO2 emissions. One strategy aims for electrochemical conversions powered by electricity from renewable sources, but photochemical approaches driven by sunlight are also conceivable6. A considerable challenge in both approaches is the development of efficient and selective catalysts, ideally based on cheap and Earth-abundant elements rather than expensive precious metals7. Of the molecular photo- and electrocatalysts reported, only a few catalysts are stable and selective for CO2 reduction; moreover, these catalysts produce primarily CO or HCOOH, and catalysts capable of generating even low to moderate yields of highly reduced hydrocarbons remain rare. Here we show that an iron tetraphenylporphyrin complex functionalized with trimethylammonio groups, which is the most efficient and selective molecular electro- catalyst for converting CO2 to CO known18, 19, 20, can also catalyse the eight-electron reduction of CO2 to methane upon visible light irradiation at ambient temperature and pressure. We find that the catalytic system, operated in an acetonitrile solution containing a photosensitizer and sacrificial electron donor, operates stably over several days. CO is the main product of the direct CO2 photoreduction reaction, but a two-pot procedure that first reduces CO2 and then reduces CO generates methane with a selectivity of up to 82 per cent and a quantum yield (light-to-product efficiency) of 0.18 per cent. However, we anticipate that the operating principles of our system may aid the development of other molecular catalysts for the production of solar fuels from CO2 under mild conditions.

Related Stories

New catalyst paves way for carbon neutral fuel

June 21, 2017

Australian scientists have paved the way for carbon neutral fuel with the development of a new efficient catalyst that converts carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air into synthetic natural gas in a 'clean' process using solar ...

A way to use water to convert methane into methanol

May 5, 2017

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers from the Paul Scherrer Institut and ETH Zurich, both in Switzerland, has developed a one-step process that uses water to convert methane to methanol. In their paper published in the journal ...

Recommended for you

The birth of a new protein

October 20, 2017

A yeast protein that evolved from scratch can fold into a three-dimensional shape—contrary to the general understanding of young proteins—according to new research led by the University of Arizona.

Discovery lights path for Alzheimer's research

October 19, 2017

A probe invented at Rice University that lights up when it binds to a misfolded amyloid beta peptide—the kind suspected of causing Alzheimer's disease—has identified a specific binding site on the protein that could facilitate ...

5 comments

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

PPihkala
not rated yet Jul 21, 2017
"a catalyst that has an iron tetraphenylporphyrin compound that has been functionalized with tetraphenylporphyrin groups"

This is copied wrong from original, it should be ammonia groups.
forumid001
not rated yet Jul 22, 2017
None of the publications related to "conversion of CO2 into a fuel" can really turn into a practical technology to address CO2 problems caused by industries or otherwise.
Eikka
not rated yet Jul 22, 2017
None of the publications related to "conversion of CO2 into a fuel" can really turn into a practical technology to address CO2 problems caused by industries or otherwise.


Except commercial pilot plants already exist.

http://www.chemic...iceland/

https://www.iet.h...&L=4
Whydening Gyre
not rated yet Jul 22, 2017
Yeah, but...
Burning methane produces water and - CO2...
Where's the win?
Eikka
not rated yet Jul 22, 2017
Where's the win?


CO2 in your fuel tank is CO2 not in the atmosphere. It reduces the amount even though it's returned back eventually.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.