Ocean acidification affects climate-relevant functions at the sea-surface microlayer

ocean
Credit: Tiago Fioreze / Wikipedia

Ocean acidification might alter climate-relevant functions of the oceans' uppermost layer, according to a study by a group of marine scientists published in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans In an experiment led by GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, the researchers observed a close coupling between biological processes in the seawater and the chemistry of the sea surface microlayer. Also, they noted a growing number of specialised bacterial and algal cells in this microenvironment. These changes might influence interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere such as the air-sea gas exchange and the emission of sea-spray aerosols that can scatter solar radiation or contribute to the formation of clouds.

Like a skin, the sea-surface microlayer separates the ocean from the atmosphere. The exchange of gases and the emission of sea-spray aerosols - two functions that are crucial for climate - take place in this boundary film. A mesocosm experiment by scientists from GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research Bremerhaven (AWI) and the Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW) reveals for the first time how ocean change might affect the special physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the ocean's uppermost boundary. The results are published in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. First author is Dr. Luisa Galgani who conducted the study as part of her PhD at GEOMAR and AWI.

"Experiments have shown how , a change in the ocean chemistry due to the uptake of man-made carbon dioxide, influences the growth and efficiency of marine bacteria as well as the sinking of carbon-rich particles", Dr. Luisa Galgani resumes. "We know that organic material and microorganisms accumulating in the sea-surface microlayer are similar to those found in the below. So we expected that ocean acidification-driven changes in ocean biogeochemistry in the water column can also be reflected in the microlayer. It is important to understand changes in this microenvironment, because it might have consequences for air-sea interactions that are relevant for our climate."

To investigate consequences of ocean acidification on marine systems, future ocean scenarios have been simulated with the KOSMOS mesocosms (KOSMOS: Kiel Off-Shore Mesocosms for future Ocean Simulations) at Raunefjord, Norway. These nine large floating structures, each of which isolates 75.000 litres of seawater, were brought to different carbon dioxide (CO2) levels as to be expected for upcoming decades and centuries. For one month, the surface of six mesocosms was sampled daily with a glass plate.

Analyses of the samples verified that organic compounds in the sea-surface microlayer reflected the temporal development of phytoplankton growth in the water column. Also, at higher CO2 levels, the concentrations of bacterioneuston, marine bacteria inhabiting the surface, increased. More acidic conditions promoted changes in the dynamics of organic matter. Especially proteinaceous marine gels became smaller but more abundant probably because they served as a nutritional substrate in the sea-surface microlayer, where higher abundances of microorganisms were more efficient in degrading the organic material accumulated during a phytoplankton bloom.

"From previous studies we know that the activity of is stimulated at high CO2", Dr. Galgani explains. "Based on our observations in the sea-surface microlayer, we think that this could be very important as it may imply a positive feedback on atmospheric CO2 from oceanic sources, that is, from microbial metabolism at the air-sea interface."

Additionally, stimulated bacterial degradation might heavily affect the organic composition of nascent sea-spray particles, upon which relies the ability of marine aerosols to interact with the climate system. In the era of climate change, the contribution of marine aerosols is still poorly understood. "There is a long way ahead before we can determine how the ocean provides raw material for clouds formation", Prof. Dr. Anja Engel, head of the research group Microbial Biogeochemistry at GEOMAR, states. "However, we think that our study provided an additional piece of the puzzle and we are directing our research in investigating more the structure and the dynamics of the air-sea interface to better estimate -atmosphere interactions in a high CO2 world."


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More information: Galgani, L., Stolle. C., Endres, S., Schulz, K. G., Engel, A. (2014), Effects of ocean acidification on the biogenic composition of the seasurface microlayer: Results from a mesocosm study, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, DOI: 10.1002/2014JC010188. Galgani, L., Stolle. C., Endres, S., Schulz, K. G., Engel, A. (2014), Effects of ocean acidification on the biogenic composition of the seasurface microlayer: Results from a mesocosm study, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, DOI: 10.1002/2014JC010188.
Journal information: Journal of Geophysical Research

Citation: Ocean acidification affects climate-relevant functions at the sea-surface microlayer (2014, November 11) retrieved 18 October 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-11-ocean-acidification-affects-climate-relevant-functions.html
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Nov 11, 2014
How do we tackle this while we still have Deniers in our way?

Nov 11, 2014
"How do we tackle this while we still have Deniers in our way?"

Historically the great Communist Progressives had a massive purge which solved the problem of dissent.

Nov 11, 2014
Once again, those without a decent science education turn to politics to determine their positions.

Political prejudice is a dangerous thing.

Nov 11, 2014
"How do we tackle this while we still have Deniers in our way?"

Exactly what part of that statement conforms with the basic tenets of science?????????????

Nov 11, 2014
Gkam you are a political being and you do not even realize it. All of science is based on continuous questioning of theories.

Nov 11, 2014
My comment was about deniers, not politics. Do you make your decisions based on political prejudice?

Nov 11, 2014
No, we are all political to some extent, and I do realize it. We want to affect our environment in the largest sense - our living conditions.

"All of science is based on continuous questioning of theories."

You are talking to somebody who has been in too many fields because I talk truth to power, I suppose. I ask the questions regarding the elephant in the room too often. But one has to realize when it turns to blind opposition.

Nov 11, 2014
"My comment was about deniers, not politics."

Can you see the political implications of that statement?

Nov 11, 2014
No, we are all political to some extent, and I do realize it. We want to affect our environment in the largest sense - our living conditions.

"All of science is based on continuous questioning of theories."

You are talking to somebody who has been in too many fields because I talk truth to power, I suppose. I ask the questions regarding the elephant in the room too often. But one has to realize when it turns to blind opposition.


So what is your name then, since you're so damn important.

Nov 11, 2014
The research of AGW is inherently political since the governments have a vested interest in the results. When the UN or my government proposes to redistribute/tax/increase their powers over my nations wealth and freedoms on the basis of dark matter or string theory I will also question the results of the papers involved if they were funded by these governmental bodies.

Nov 11, 2014
"So what is your name then, since you're so damn important. "
-----------------------------------------------

I am not important, I just had very interesting experiences. In the service, I helped send folk into space in rocket planes at Edwards AFB, put together and operate the Electronic Battlefield for McNamara. As a civilian I was a tech on industrial lasers, 0.5- 3 MeV electron Beams, motor drives of all kinds, extruders, expanders, molding presses, cupolas, induction furnaces, computer-controlled manufacturing, test systems, power production systems, alternative energy, and the problems from the integration of new technologies into an existing infrastructure.

It is called Power quality in the utility business, I and I got to help develop it and teach it nationwide to over 33,000 engineers, managers, technicians and electricians, before I stopped counting.

I am retired, and 70 years old.

Nov 11, 2014
How do we tackle this while we still have Deniers in our way?


Nuclear power....their politics generally is amenable to this policy and therefore you're going to have a much easier time politically getting them on board.

Nov 11, 2014
...In the service, I helped send folk into space in rocket planes at Edwards AFB, put together and operate the Electronic Battlefield for McNamara. As a civilian I was a tech on industrial lasers, 0.5- 3 MeV electron Beams, motor drives of all kinds, extruders, expanders, molding presses, cupolas, induction furnaces, computer-controlled manufacturing, test systems, power production systems, alternative energy, and the problems from the integration of new technologies into an existing infrastructure.

It is called Power quality in the utility business, I and I got to help develop it and teach it nationwide to over 33,000 engineers, managers, technicians and electricians, before I stopped counting.

I am retired, and 70 years old.


That doesn't answer the question. If you are so credible, then use your reputation already. Give us your name. That is an impressive resume' for a person with a Master's in Climatology.

Nov 11, 2014
Gkam You and I are not that much different except that I have seen how much our society has declined since I was a child. IMHO the government has become WAY to powerful and has created a nation of dependency that will encourage a stronger more powerful government because it is collectively afraid of individual freedom and ability to fend for ones self. One can blame greedy corporations for poverty but I contend that corporations and the government are one entity.

Thus, the only way to limit the power of the corporations is to limit the powers of the governments that are their puppets.

Nov 11, 2014
Gkam I realize how you like to refer to refer to Bush and no bid Halliburton as the enemy but don't you realize that GE, Solyndra and Tesla are exactly the same. All are companies that are well connected and benefiting from the political system.

Nov 11, 2014
Joe. Google this and get the pdf. I am the least important name on the page.

Edwards AFB Desert Wings-10211966, pg 1

Nov 11, 2014
How do we tackle this while we still have Deniers in our way?

You can start by growing a brain and then take a good look at the hypocrites in your AGW Cult, like your False "Profit" Al.

Nov 11, 2014
Joe. Google this and get the pdf. I am the least important name on the page.

Edwards AFB Desert Wings-10211966, pg 1


Which says that you are a nobody, except for possibly a liar.

If you are using your credentials as an argument, without your identity, your argument is irrelevant.

Nov 11, 2014
Joe, you are hilarious. My picture was on that page, along with my name. Are you blind, as well as other calamity? BTW, the Air Force Flight Test Center includes not only Edwards and Yeager's Test Pilot School, but Rocket Site, our special projects such as the three variants of Blackbird, XB-70, U-2, prototype F-111, XV-5, XC-142, NASA, P.1170 (the predecessor to the Harrier), and our facilities at Groom Lake, known to civilians as Area 51.

Our C-130's caught reentering spy satellite film capsules and picked Air Commandos off the ground. It was a special time, and I was there as one of the ants.

I guess some folk do nothing in their lives. Wait until Smithsonian Air and Space Magazine prints my story, for which they paid. Will you deny that, too?

Nov 11, 2014
^^ Seems like violence is the only thing you can do. You're obviously shitty at science.

Our C-130's caught reentering spy satellite film capsules and picked Air Commandos off the ground. It was a special time, and I was there as one of the ants.

I guess some folk do nothing in their lives. Wait until Smithsonian Air and Space Magazine prints my story, for which they paid. Will you deny that, too?


So what is your name?

Also, I'm an OEF Vet. I even have the titanium plates and rods to prove it.

Nov 11, 2014
"You either ignore them or actively take them out. Put out or shut up. Got it?"
---------------------------

Uh, yeah, He has been on ignore. I was speaking about society, not me.

Dealing with genuine problems is sufficiently difficult without having them politicized, driving all kinds of bystanders not in these fields to assume they have secret knowledge or intellectual skills professionals do not.

Nov 11, 2014
"You either ignore them or actively take them out. Put out or shut up. Got it?"
---------------------------

Uh, yeah, He has been on ignore. I was speaking about society, not me.

Dealing with genuine problems is sufficiently difficult without having them politicized, driving all kinds of bystanders not in these fields to assume they have secret knowledge or intellectual skills professionals do not.


Then prove you're who you claim to be. If you're going to stand on your position as an academic, prove to everyone that you're actually who you say you are.

Nov 11, 2014
"Wait until Smithsonian Air and Space Magazine prints my story, for which they paid."

I'll look forward to reading it. My PhD was in Aerospace, so I find Air & Space a fun read. Unfortunately, I haven't been out to DC in some years to go to the museums.

Nov 11, 2014
The bird in which I came of age is now there, the ARIA, which is the same bird in my story. I never would have believed something I did decades ago could now mean something.

Nov 11, 2014
Yep, you're such a fucking hero...

Nov 11, 2014
"I'll look forward to reading it."
-------------------------------------------

The Editor in Chief told me it was in a very large pile, and not to hold my breath. Got a place for me to post it? I can do it with permission.

Nov 11, 2014
"I'll look forward to reading it."
-------------------------------------------

The Editor in Chief told me it was in a very large pile, and not to hold my breath. Got a place for me to post it? I can do it with permission.
@gkam
set yourself up with a profile at Sapo's joint
http://saposjoint.net/Forum/

a couple of us have profiles there (myself as TruckCaptainStumpy, etc)
@zz5555
set yourself up there too
we can PM since PO is not allowing PM's anymore

Yep, you're such a fucking hero...
@joeB
hey, joe, i don't see you posting your full name, address and social security number here so that we can all verify who you are...

don't get pissed when people value SOME privacy
after all, even though my name has been Truck Captain Stumpy for nearly 30 years, and is on most of my certificates and all my current professional paperwork, it is not my full name

you give to get
PM me at sapo's, sciforums.com or cosmoquest


Nov 11, 2014
Then prove you're who you claim to be. If you're going to stand on your position as an academic, prove to everyone that you're actually who you say you are
@joeBlue
you would be surprised how many academics visit here, from Q-Star, AntiAlias_Physorg and Runrig to Maggnus, Thermodynamics, Rug and Schneib... and those are some i can personally vouch for because i know them

they also value privacy, and unless you are willing to post your SSN, and other personal identifying info here... then you are no better

who cares?
if you watch any of the video's put out by cosmoquest / Frasier Cain which get posted to Universe Today forums as topics you will see peoples names from here in the credits at the end

i'm a vet too... so, post an e-mail for you or goto the sites i mentioned and PM me

here is a good read for now: http://www.scienc...abstract
http://marine.rut..._pub.pdf

Nov 12, 2014
MR166 muttered
"How do we tackle this while we still have Deniers in our way?"
Exactly what part of that statement conforms with the basic tenets of science?????????????
Because obviously there is clear evidence some people, who are shown the Science ignore it because they are attached emotionally to a notion humans couldn't do anything to alter atmosphere - the evidence for that is compelling OR are paid to obfuscate.
http://en.wikiped...c_method

That & known thermal properties of all greenhouse gases, they CANNOT appreciate !

It would be really nice if the uneducated arbitrary deniers of AGW & Science would drop their redneck/bogan stubbornness & embrace simple logic in physics & chemistry.

When they R shown up they switch to politics & obviously because such opinions are arbitrary & do not require experimental methodology or evidence.

All these things R obvious to intelligent people but not dogmatic deniers.

Look at Evidence please !

Nov 12, 2014
MR166 imagines
"My comment was about deniers, not politics."
Can you see the political implications of that statement?
There is no political implication. If you really imagine there is then show, is the statement in favour or denies any political group ?

Or how about religious, came across one which claims "There is an't be warming because god made the world the way it is & wouldnt let it occur".

R there any political groups that specifically affirm or deny because of politics or predominantly misunderstand from a basis of lack of education of the Science & the complexities of managing that Science ?

Details MR166, did u take a census of all deniers & communicate to gkam they are more than one party or religious group than another OR somehow gkam read your mind knowing what your census showed ?

How could he do that ?

Are you forgetting how to communicate in clear precise terms. remember YOU R the one that brought up communists FFS !

Education pls.

Nov 12, 2014
JoeBlue the hypocritical idiot with
So what is your name then, since you're so damn important.
You come across as a mere kid.

Before U demand names on a public forum with all it implies, first offer yours, thats called being mature in the face of risk.

There R people here happy with a nickname as have I, I'm on ~50 other forums in wide technical fields because dumb redneck/bogans just CANNOT conceive anyone could possibly have multiple uni qualifications & core understanding of; legal imperatives, cross-disciplinary technologies, industrial processes, experimental design, psychology, microbiology & even commercial planning & wealth generation.

So here, I choose to use a part name, my full family name too long & goes back to pre revolutionary France.

There is immense anti-science tall poppy syndrome which people like you are evidence of.

Instead of barking tangentially for ~3 yrs since 2010, Y didnt U ever get uni qualifications ?

U write like a d..k/kid !

Nov 12, 2014
Whether you believe or not, might want to look at this advanced renewable energy website.

http://thomasinst...ebly.com

Nov 15, 2014
Once again, those without a decent science education turn to politics to determine their positions.

Political prejudice is a dangerous thing.


i have an excellent education and research history in a few areas of the sciences and have done plenty of patent work. scientific fundamentalism is a dangerous thing as it blinds many ppolitically indoctrinated people to believe that all 'science' results are conclusively certain of a prediction with highly specific outcomes.

and yet, people think that climate science makes hard predictions because they simply HAVE NOT STUDIED IT.

nail down any climate scientists to committing to hardcore specific predictions. i dare you to see how evasive and ambiguously qualified language they will use to provide anything but a specified prediction.

the brainwashing is at an end. the global warming alarmist sheep are now being outed for the doomsday religious fundamentalists they are. their 'god' is 'consensus of researchers'...eesh.

Nov 15, 2014
i have an excellent education ...eesh
@teslaberry
1- this is appeal to authority
2- your post is personal conjecture and is not accurate
3- there is no evidence supporting your conjecture, nor are you linking anything supporting it
4- (and this is important) the science says some very specific things, such as:
-it is warming
-we are causing problems that are affecting the warming cycle
-CO2 is a major GHG affecting the climate
-oceans are becoming acidic due to the CO2, etc
http://www.scienc...abstract
http://www.resear...b48a.pdf

unless you give equivalent studies refuting the science, you are spouting anti-science propaganda
http://www.drexel...nge.ashx

post your evidence or be considered another troll

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