For archaeologists, Middle East conflicts create 'perfect sandstorm' of challenges

May 14, 2014 by William Harms, University of Chicago
Gil Stein, director of the Oriental Institute (right), is leading an archaeological dig at Tell Zeidan, a prehistoric site in Syria inhabited by a culture that led to the establishment of urban civilization in the ancient Middle East. Credit: Oriental Institute

Conflicts in the Middle East have made archaeological work increasingly difficult, but the work must go on, scholars said at a recent conference organized with the help of the Oriental Institute.

The task of digging ancient sites and studying artifacts always has been historically challenging, but recent regime changes and further burden scholars who must maneuver through national bureaucracies and forge relationships for help. "By any stretch of the imagination, work during the last four years has become particularly difficult," said Gil Stein, director of the Oriental Institute.

"Everything has changed across the Middle East. In some countries, fieldwork is impossible. In others, it's very difficult to deal with the bureaucracies," he added. "It's a perfect sandstorm."

Stein was among a dozen archaeologists speaking at the May 1 conference, "Surveying the Field: Conducting Archaeology in the Middle East Today," in which researchers discussed successes and problems in the current climate.

Stein has done important work at Tell Zeidan in Syria, where he is investigating the earliest precursors of Mesopotamian urbanism. That work was halted after conflicts emerged in the country, which was declared to be in a civil war in 2012.

Abbas Alizadeh, senior research associate at the Oriental Institute, holds a piece of spent ammunition from the top of the mound of Surezha. The mound, located in the Erbil province of northern Iraq, had been used as an antiaircraft emplacement during the Iran-Iraq war. Credit: Gil Stein/Oriental Institute

In nations in which there is armed conflict, are frequently damaged and artifacts looted, participants said. Looting and destruction were major problems in the wake of the Iraq war that began in March 2003. In recent years, however, archaeologists have been able to return, and Stein is doing work currently in northern Iraq.

In areas where there is relative peace, archaeologists have problems because authorities who administer the sites are part of ministries that also include operations such as tourism with other priorities Stein said.

Excavation work at Surezha. Credit: Gil Stein/Oriental Institute

Nadine Moeller, associate professor of Egyptology, who is director of the Tell Edfu project in Egypt, said that working in more marginal regions of the country have had to obtain an increasing number of authorizations from local and national authorities in the wake of nation's revolution in 2011. Archaeological work does persist in Egypt and elsewhere in the Middle East.

Joy McCorriston, professor of anthropology at Ohio State University, discussed her work in Oman, for instance. By working with local authorities, she has been able to do research that helps people understand how their nation is connected to its ancient past. "But we have to remember that we are guests in these countries," she said.

Donald Whitcomb, a research associate at the Oriental Institute, discussed his work in Palestine, where he and Palestinian colleagues are excavating a site near Jericho. The Khibat-al-Mafjar expedition has uncovered important new evidence of urbanism and trade from the 7th to 10th centuries.

Project ceramics specialist Dr. John Alden discusses the Surezha-excavated ceramics with Iraqi conservators in Erbil. Credit: Gil Stein/Oriental Institute

An important part of that project has been training students to use the latest technology tools of archaeology, he said.

Despite the successes, challenges are likely to persist throughout the region, said veteran archaeologist McGuire Gibson, professor of Mesopotamian archaeology at the Oriental Institute.

"I have always told my students that you have to work hard and get your work done while you're there, because you don't know if you will be back the next year," he said.

Explore further: World's oldest weather report could revise Bronze Age chronology

Related Stories

UN: Syria's ancient history faces new threats

August 29, 2013

Looted artifacts turning up on the black market, plundered archaeological sites and the collapse of the minaret of an 11th century mosque that was the ancient heart of Aleppo's walled Old City.

Israeli says he has found King David's citadel

May 6, 2014

An Israeli archaeologist says he has found the legendary citadel captured by King David in his conquest of Jerusalem, rekindling a longstanding debate about using the Bible as a field guide to identifying ancient ruins.

Archaeologists discover gold processing center

June 19, 2007

Archaeologists from the University of Chicago have discovered a gold processing center along the middle Nile, an installation that produced the precious metal sometime between 2000 and 1500 B.C. The center, along with a cemetery ...

Recommended for you


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.