Invisible volcanic ash gives clues to Neanderthal demise

Invisible volcanic ash gives clues to Neanderthal demise
Microscopic particles of volcanic glass called cryptotephra. © Suzanne MacLachlan/BOSCORF/National Oceanography Centre, UK.

( -- Invisible to the human eye, cryptotephra is a fine volcanic glass that is blasted out of erupting volcanoes along with ash. It leaves behind a hidden layer, in the earth, which has now been detected, giving clues about why the Neanderthals died out.

About 40,000 years ago, a layer of cryptotephra particles carpeted a huge area of Central and Eastern Europe after a massive volcanic eruption in Italy called the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI).

This eruption, and the resulting environmental and climatic disruption, has been suggested as a factor in the of the Neanderthals. Interaction with us, modern humans, is one of the other possibilities.

Neanderthals, who were our closest , had been living in Europe for hundreds of thousands of years. But all physical evidence of them disappears after about 30,000 years ago. 

Early modern humans were known to have arrived in Europe at least 35,000 years ago, having originated in Africa, but precise dates, and the length of time they overlapped with the last Neanderthals, are unclear.

Invisible volcanic ash gives clues to Neanderthal demise
Skull of a Neanderthal, Homo neanderthalensis

Archaeological sites, many in caves, have revealed stone tools belonging to Neanderthals and to early modern humans.

Scientists have now used a new technique to detect CI cryptotephra in some of these sites across Europe and in Libya - the lighter of the glass means it spreads over much wider distances than .

The team of more than 40 scientists, including Prof Chris Stringer and Mark Lewis of the Natural History Museum, published their research in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences last week.

They found that the CI cryptotephra lies above, and so is younger than, the layers where modern human stone tools began to replace Neanderthal stone tools, in 4 central European sites.

This means that the Italian eruption happened after the Neanderthals had already declined and so it couldn't have been the cause of their extinction.

The team says that the CI volcanic eruption, and severe climatic cooling that happened around the same time, did not have a lasting impact on Neanderthals, or early modern humans.

Modern humans had already arrived in Europe by 40,000 years ago, and posed a greater threat than natural disasters to the survival of other humans living there, they say.

The issue may have been increased competition for resources, with modern humans being better able to take advantage of their surroundings. Or possibly conflict - genetic studies suggest there was certainly close contact between Neanderthals and early modern humans who left Africa, including some interbreeding.  

Either way, it is looking more and more likely that modern humans were implicated in the demise of the .

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Citation: Invisible volcanic ash gives clues to Neanderthal demise (2012, August 6) retrieved 23 July 2019 from
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Aug 06, 2012
"Early modern humans were known to have arrived in Europe at least 35,000 years ago, having originated in Africa, but precise dates, and the length of time they overlapped with the last Neanderthals, are unclear."

Right, but there's an old Irish mythology about the first settlers encountering some kind of intelligent man-beasts already living there, leading to war and their eventual extinction, as I recall.. hmmm.

Hmmm indeed.

Aug 06, 2012
isn't it curious how they're always trying to figure out what distinguishes Homo Sapiens from Neanderthals, but they're never trying to figure out where the Neanderthals came from? Were they from Homo Erectus? And, how does Homo Sapiens relate to Homo Erectus?

Aug 06, 2012
Actually, genetic evidence can ONLY be evidence of interbreeding.

And flash? At the time we are talking about, humans and neanderthals lived in family groups or small tribes. The genes that you and I carry are most likely from numerous of those tribes and within those tribes interbreeding also occurred. Remember, we are talking about thousands of years of intermingling when lifespans were perhaps 30-40 years.

Aug 08, 2012
The Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens both derived from Homo Erectus.

Homo Erectus were definitely more human-like than any other ape, they possessed some very distinctive Anatomical characteristics:
1. Very large brain, very small teeth, larger body size.

Along with that they possessed behavorial characteristics such as:

2. A heavier reliance on tools, More complex stone tools used to butcher animals and work pieces of wood, a wide geographical distribution (traveling with the uses of watercraft), control of fire, and the use of symbolism but not the present symbolism in modern humans today.

Hope this was helpful to your questions!

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