Simulations of reality would require less memory on a quantum computer than on a classical computer, new research from scientists at the University of Bristol, published in Nature Communications, has shown.

The study by Dr Karoline Wiesner from the School of Mathematics and Centre for Complexity Sciences, together with researchers from the Centre for Quantum Technologies in Singapore, demonstrates a new way in which computers based on quantum physics could beat the performance of classical computers.

When confronted with a complicated system, scientists typically strive to identify underlying simplicity which is then articulated as natural laws and fundamental principles. However, complex systems often seem immune to this approach, making it difficult to extract underlying principles.

Researchers have discovered that complex systems can be less complex than originally thought if they allow quantum physics to help: quantum models of complex systems are simpler and predict their behaviour more efficiently than classical models.

A good measure of the complexity of a particular system or process is how predictable it is. For example, the outcome of a fair coin toss is inherently unpredictable and any resources (beyond a random guess) spent on predicting it would be wasted. Therefore, the complexity of such a process is zero.

Other systems are quite different, for example neural spike sequences (which indicate how sensory and other information is represented in the brain) or protein conformational dynamics (how proteins – the molecules that facilitate biological functions – undergo structural rearrangement). These systems have memory and are predictable to some extent; they are more complex than a coin toss.

The operation of such complex systems in many organisms is based on a simulation of reality. This simulation allows the organism to predict and thus react to the environment around it. However, if quantum dynamics can be exploited to make identical predictions with less memory, then such systems need not be as complex as originally thought.

Dr Wiesner added: “On a more fundamental level, we found that the efficiency of prediction still does not reach the lower bound given by the principles of thermodynamics – there is room for improvement. This might hint at a source of temporal asymmetry within the framework of quantum mechanics; that it is fundamentally impossible to simulate certain observable statistics reversibly and hence with perfect efficiency.”

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**More information:**
*Nature Communications* 3, 762 (2012). Abstract. arXiv:1102.1994.

## Origin

## kochevnik

## simplicio

What do you mean "approximate"? You are confusing quantum computer with inaccurate commuter. Quantum computer can produce exact result or probability result depending on problem, just like classical computer.

## Terriva

## Terriva

## antialias_physorg

Quantum computers could give you the prime number factorization of large numbers alsmots instantly - while regular computers would slave over this for many lifetimes of the universe. On the other hand regular computers are well suited for deterministic calculations - which quantum computers have a hard time with.

The two complement each other - and in the end we'll probably see computers with a mix of regular and quantum cores.

## Terriva

Seed of apples, being more specific - as we have no practical applications of quantum computers developed yet.

## kaasinees

Artificial Intelligence

Some 3D calculations maybe.

Just thinking out loud.

## El_Nose

simulating quatum systems

holographic projections based on viewable area

random number generators

factoring almost anything

large scale optimizations

database querying

ask a physist what he would do with it

any atomic level analysis

protien folding

drup interactions

nueral networking with quantum nodes

## antialias_physorg

Conscience seems to be more a phenomenon of temporal coherence of (classical) parallel processing rather than superposition of states.

But anything where you have to sieve through large data structures could benefit enormously.

## vacuum-mechanics

In contrast to quantum mechanics in which we still do not know about its mechanism! But people are dreaming to get a quantum computer while we are not clear about quantum entanglement. So understanding the mechanism of quantum mechanics (in paper below), may pave the way to our dream!

http://www.vacuum...id=19=en