Related topics: social networking

Experiments illuminate key component of plants' immune systems

Plants, like humans and animals, have over millions of years evolved complex immune systems that fend off invading pathogens. But unlike many animals, plants lack adaptive immunity conferred by antibodies. This means each ...

Team programs a humanoid robot to communicate in sign language

For a robot to be able to "learn" sign language, it is necessary to combine different areas of engineering such as artificial intelligence, neural networks and artificial vision, as well as underactuated robotic hands. "One ...

5 moon landing innovations that changed life on Earth

Much of the technology common in daily life today originates from the drive to put a human being on the moon. This effort reached its pinnacle when Neil Armstrong stepped off the Eagle landing module onto the lunar surface ...

Methods in belowground botany

Plant root systems play a crucial role in ecosystems, radically impacting everything from nutrient cycling to species composition. Despite their importance, scientists are just beginning to develop the tools to understand ...

Exploring deeper understanding and better description of networks

Since the beginning of the last century, research on complex systems has advanced the fields of chaos, fractals and networks. A network consists of nodes and edges, where nodes represent the elements of a complex system and ...

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Complex systems

Complex systems is a scientific field which studies the common properties of systems that are considered fundamentally complex. Such systems may exist in nature, society, science and many other fields. It is also called complex systems theory, complexity science, study of complex systems, sciences of complexity, non-equilibrium physics, and historical physics. The key problems of such systems are difficulties with their formal modeling and simulation. From such perspective, in different research contexts complex systems are defined on the base of their different attributes. Since all complex systems have many interconnected components, the science of networks and network theory are always important aspects of the study of complex systems. At present, the consensus related to one universal definition of complex system does not exist yet.

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