Freedom of choice: When rejection and discrimination hinder minority entrepreneurs

Jun 25, 2014

When it comes to The American Dream, freedom of choice is a central value for entrepreneurs. According to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research, when a person's choices are limited due to rejection and discrimination, they are more likely to fail at business and in their personal lives.

"Not only does restricting a person's choices threaten the success of a new business, it also has swift and damaging effects on the individual's self-esteem and their personal sense of control and power in the world," write authors Sterling A. Bone (Utah State University), Glenn L. Christensen (Brigham Young University), and Jerome D. Williams (Rutgers University).

In their research, the authors studied the experiences of racial and ethnic minority entrepreneurs and compared them with white majority entrepreneurs. Results revealed that the experiences of ethnic minority were often remarkably different and worse than those of their white counterparts.

In one field study, white, Hispanic, and African American participants were asked to apply for small business loans using identical application data and wearing the same clothes. While all applicants were otherwise identical in appearance and "on paper," the Hispanic and African American applicants were given different information than the white applicants. They were also asked to provide more financial background information, were given significantly less encouragement, and were less likely to receive help in the loan application process.

The authors also examined how a person's self-esteem and sense of autonomy are threatened after rejection. Comparing the impact of being rejected for a student loan, results showed that minority respondents took a harder emotional hit than their white counterparts.

"For public policy stakeholders and consumer welfare activists, our research offers evidence against the general assumption in the United States that choice is equally distributed, democratized, and available to all," the authors conclude.

Explore further: Minority entrepreneurs face discrimination when seeking loans

More information: Sterling A. Bone, Glenn L. Christensen, and Jerome D. Williams. "Rejected, Shackled, and Alone: The Impact of Systemic Restricted Choice on Minority Consumers' Construction of Self." Journal of Consumer Research: August 2014.

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

African-American females have good odds to get a loan

Aug 12, 2013

Need a loan? You appear to have an advantage if you're an African American female. According to a study by University of Iowa sociologist Sarah Harkness, lenders perceive African-American women just as favorably as white ...

Recommended for you

Power can corrupt even the honest

17 hours ago

When appointing a new leader, selectors base their choice on several factors and typically look for leaders with desirable characteristics such as honesty and trustworthiness. However once leaders are in power, can we trust ...

Learning at 10 degrees north

17 hours ago

Secluded beaches, calypso music and the entertaining carnival are often what come to mind when thinking of the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. But Dal Earth Sciences students might first consider Trinidad's ...

How to find the knowns and unknowns in any research

19 hours ago

Have you ever felt overloaded by information? Ever wondered how to make sense of claims and counter-claims about a topic? With so much information out there on many different issues, how is a person new to ...

Minorities energize US consumer market, according to report

19 hours ago

The buying power of minority groups in the U.S. has reached new heights and continues to outpace cumulative inflation, according to the latest Multicultural Economy Report from the Selig Center for Economic Growth at the ...

User comments : 0