Alcohol and drugs: Not just for modern man: 'Anthropology of intoxication' in prehistoric European societies

May 12, 2014
Alcohol and drugs: Not just for modern man

Unlike modern Man, the prehistoric people of Europe did not use mind-altering substances simply for their hedonistic pleasure. The use of alcohol and plant drugs – such as opium poppies and hallucinogenic mushrooms – was highly regulated and went hand-in-hand with the belief system and sacred burial rituals of many preindustrial societies. Elisa Guerra-Doce of the Universidad de Valladolid in Spain contends that their use was an integral part of prehistoric beliefs, and that these substances were believed to aid in communication with the spiritual world. Guerra-Doce's research appears in Springer's Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory.

Despite the fact that the consumption of these substances is as ancient as human society itself, it is only fairly recently that researchers have started to look into the historical and cultural contexts in which mind-altering products were used in Europe. To add to the body of literature about the anthropology of intoxication in prehistoric European societies, Guerra-Doce systematically documented the cultural significance of consuming inebriating substances in these cultures.

In the research, four different types of archaeological documents were examined: the macrofossil remains of the leaves, fruits or seeds of psychoactive plants; residues suggestive of alcoholic beverages; psychoactive alkaloids found in archaeological artifacts and skeletal remains from ; and artistic depictions of mood-altering plant species and drinking scenes. These remnants include bits of the opium poppy in the teeth of a male adult in a Neolithic site in Spain, charred Cannabis seeds in bowls found in Romania, traces of barley beer on several ceramic vessels recovered in Iberia, and abstract designs in the Italian Alps that depict the ritual use of hallucinogenic mushrooms.

Because Guerra-Doce mainly found traces of sensory-altering products in tombs and ceremonial places, she believes such substances are strongly linked to ritual usage. They were consumed in order to alter the usual state of consciousness, or even to achieve a trance state. The details of the rituals are still unclear, but the hypothesis is that the substances were either used in the course of mortuary rites, to provide sustenance for the deceased in their journey into the afterlife, or as a kind of tribute to the underworld deities.

She adds that the right to use such may have been highly regulated given that they were a means to connect with the spirit world, and therefore played a sacred role among prehistoric European societies.

"Far from being consumed for hedonistic purposes, drug plants and alcoholic drinks had a sacred role among prehistoric societies," says Guerra-Doce. "It is not surprising that most of the evidence derives from both elite burials and restricted ceremonial sites, suggesting the possibility that the consumption of mind-altering products was socially controlled in prehistoric Europe."

Explore further: Young beer drinkers binge drink more frequently, study finds

More information: Guerra-Doce, E. (2014). The Origins of Inebriation: Archaeological Evidence of the Consumption of Fermented Beverages and Drugs in Prehistoric Eurasia. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory. DOI: 10.1007/s10816-014-9205-z

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rhugh1066
5 / 5 (1) May 12, 2014
I wonder if Guerra-Doce believes anthropologists 11000 years from now, after finding wine traces in Catholic church ruins, will conclude that alcohol was "highly regulated" and "strongly linked to ritual usage" across broader humanity . People long ago were exactly like us. To believe they weren't just as hedonistic smacks of that "noble savage" rot ascribed to every lesser technologically-developed society ever encountered.
nkalanaga
5 / 5 (1) May 12, 2014
There probably was less recreational use, controlled or not, simply because intoxication would be a good way to end up dead. Get stoned, get eaten, by any of the numerous predators of the time. Today one can use such products without worrying about external dangers as long as one takes a few precautions.
jahbless
5 / 5 (1) May 12, 2014
Neither of the above commenters has ever ingested a large enough dose of psilocin, mescaline, LSD or ibogaine. Even more deplorably, they have somehow managed to remain ignorant of the life-altering researches conducted by Huxley, Shulgin, McKenna, and hundreds of Asian, Latin American, African, European and North American authors over the last two or three millennia.
Lex Talonis
not rated yet May 12, 2014
The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross (subtitled "A Study of the Nature and Origins of Christianity Within the Fertility Cults of the Ancient Near East") is a 1970 book about the linguistics of early Christianity and fertility cults in the Ancient Near East. It was written by John Marco Allegro (1923–1988).[1][2]

http://en.wikiped...he_Cross

nkalanaga
not rated yet May 14, 2014
Jahbless: You are correct that I've never "ingested a large enough dose of psilocin, mescaline, LSD or ibogaine". To the best of my knowledge I've never ingested any. The extent of my intoxicant use was a swallow of my Grandfather's beer at three years old. This is not due to morality or cowardice, but simply that I have enough trouble keeping my mind tied to reality without chemicals.