Study looks at use of social media in public diplomacy

September 18, 2012
Credit: Sofiaperesoa via Wikimedia Commons

(—The use of social media for the purpose of public diplomacy has increasingly drawn the attention of U.S. diplomacy professionals, observers and political analysts especially after the recent attacks on the U.S. embassies in Egypt and Libya that were triggered by outrage over an anti-Islamic video released on Sept. 11. As more riots are planned in neighboring countries, including Algeria and Yemen, U.S. embassies have used Twitter posts to save face and play defense.

Shahira Fahmy, an associate professor in the University of Arizona School of Journalism, and a colleague from the University of Texas examined foreign public diplomacy specialists' adoption of social media such as Twitter for public diplomacy purposes. Using a survey of foreign embassies and consulates, their study explored whether effort and performance expectancy, and attitudes, facilitating conditions and perceived credibility might have influenced the adoption of social media in public diplomacy practice.

"The U.S. government and foreign policy analysts have shown great interest and enthusiasm in exploring how to increase the efficiency of using social media for more effective public diplomacy. However, studies on the issue have been rare. By the time my colleague and I initiated this research in 2009, a search in the scholarly database ProQuest with key words 'diplomacy' and 'social media' or any type of the social media such as 'blog,' ',' 'Twitter,' or '' generated no results," Fahmy said.

The study that was presented at the Association for Education in Journalism and annual convention revealed social influence and attitudes and perceived credibility ranked top in predicting the use of social media, suggesting that public diplomacy specialists attach great importance to the of social media when they decide to use those tools.

Also, pressure and expectation from society greatly affected their decisions to use social media. Effort expectancy, however, weighed least in predicting use of social media, suggesting that social media as a technology is not an intimidating factor to public diplomacy specialists.

In terms of types of social media used, Twitter ranked quite low. Public diplomacy practitioners indicated they mostly used social networks (i.e. Facebook), intranet, followed by video sharing sites, blogs, video conferencing, text messaging, Wiki, instant messaging and then Twitter. The least used were Second Life (or another virtual world) and social bookmarking.

"The low-ranking of use of Twitter (ninth) is interesting given that we live in an era in which micro-blogs such as Twitter could be faster and more influential than any intelligence entity," Fahmy said. "Just consider that in recent years has reportedly played significant roles in the recent citizen upheavals in the Middle East and North Africa including Iran, Tunisia and Egypt. One explanation could be that specialists might prefer the use of other social media tools that can disseminate longer messages that exceed 140 characters."

Explore further: No More 'Social Media,' More Single Log-ins for Multiple Platforms

Related Stories

US Congress embracing social media: report

July 27, 2011

Democrats and Republicans in Congress may be split over how to deal with the US debt and a host of other issues but they are united when it comes to social media.

Journalists prefer Twitter: Spanish study

September 26, 2011

Research carried out by professors at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) analyzing how Spanish journalists use the main social networks shows that Twitter is the most widely used, particularly to disseminate information.

UK judge: Social network sites differ from press

January 27, 2012

(AP) -- The British judge presiding over a wide-ranging inquiry into media ethics and practices has suggested that social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter should be seen differently than traditional publishers.

Recommended for you

Who you gonna trust? How power affects our faith in others

October 6, 2015

One of the ongoing themes of the current presidential campaign is that Americans are becoming increasingly distrustful of those who walk the corridors of power – Exhibit A being the Republican presidential primary, in which ...

Ancient genome from Africa sequenced for the first time

October 8, 2015

The first ancient human genome from Africa to be sequenced has revealed that a wave of migration back into Africa from Western Eurasia around 3,000 years ago was up to twice as significant as previously thought, and affected ...

The hand and foot of Homo naledi

October 6, 2015

The second set of papers related to the remarkable discovery of Homo naledi, a new species of human relative, have been published in scientific journal, Nature Communications, on Tuesday, 6 October 2015.

From a very old skeleton, new insights on ancient migrations

October 9, 2015

Three years ago, a group of researchers found a cave in Ethiopia with a secret: it held the 4,500-year-old remains of a man, with his head resting on a rock pillow, his hands folded under his face, and stone flake tools surrounding ...

Mexican site yields new details of sacrifice of Spaniards

October 9, 2015

It was one of the worst defeats in one of history's most dramatic conquests: Only a year after Hernan Cortes landed in Mexico, hundreds of people in a Spanish-led convey were captured, sacrificed and apparently eaten.


Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.