Related topics: cells · cancer cells · protein · gene expression

Success in promoting plant growth for biodiesel

In JST Strategic Basic Research Programs, a group led by Zhongrui Duan (Researcher, Waseda University) and Motoki Tominaga (Associate professor, Waseda University) succeeded in promoting plant growth and increasing seed yield ...

How the cell protects itself

The cell contains transcripts of genetic material, which migrate from the cell nucleus to another part of the cell. This movement protects the genetic transcripts from the recruitment of "spliceosomes." If this protection ...

Bactericidal action of violacein revealed

In an article published in the journal ACS Infectious Diseases, Brazilian researchers describe the bactericidal action mechanism of violacein, a violet pigment produced by environmental bacteria, especially Chromobacterium ...

Taking a close look at bacteria

Yong Wang, assistant professor of physics, and graduate student Asmaa Sadoon have been studying how molecules travel through bacterial cytoplasm in order to understand more about how these tiny organisms function. Using new ...

Innate immunity—to operate, insert dimers

The presence of DNA in mammalian cell cytoplasm triggers an immune response by binding to a dimeric enzyme, which inserts between DNA double helices to form the 'rungs' of a ladder-like structure, as an LMU team has now shown.

How cytoplasm 'feels' to a cell's components

Under a microscope, a cell's cytoplasm can resemble a tiny underwater version of New York's Times Square: Thousands of proteins swarm through a cytoplasm's watery environment, coming together and breaking apart like a cytoskeletal ...

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The cytoplasm is the part of a cell that is enclosed within the plasma membrane. In eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm contains organelles, such as mitochondria, which are filled with liquid that is kept separate from the rest of the cytoplasm by biological membranes. The contents of the cell nucleus are not part of the cytoplasm and are instead called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is the site where most cellular activities occur, such as many metabolic pathways like glycolysis, and processes such as cell division. The inner, granular mass is called the endoplasm and the outer, clear and glassy layer is called the cell cortex or the ectoplasm.

The part of the cytoplasm that is not held within organelles is called the cytosol. The cytosol is a complex mixture of cytoskeleton filaments, dissolved molecules, and water that fills much of the volume of a cell. The cytosol is a gel, with a network of fibers dispersed through water. Due to this network of pores and high concentrations of dissolved macromolecules, such as proteins, an effect called macromolecular crowding occurs and the cytosol does not act as an ideal solution. This crowding effect alters how the components of the cytosol interact with each other.

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