Direct imaging of active orbitals in quantum materials

In quantum materials based on transition metals, rare-earth and actinide elements, electronic states are characterized by electrons in orbitals d and f, combined with the solid's strong band formation. Until now, to estimate ...

Near ground-state cooling of 2-D trapped ion crystals

Researchers have been trying to cool macroscopic mechanical oscillators down to their ground state for several decades. Nonetheless, past studies have merely attained the cooling of a few selected vibrational modes of such ...

Sculpting stable structures in pure liquids

Oscillating flow and light pulses can be used to create reconfigurable architecture in liquid crystals. Materials scientists can carefully engineer concerted microfluidic flows and localized optothermal fields to achieve ...

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Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification. The word crystal is derived from the Ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), meaning both “ice” and “rock crystal”, from κρύος (kruos), “icy cold, frost”.

Most common metals are polycrystals. Crystals are often symmetrically intergrown to form crystal twins.

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