When Fock meets Landau: Topology in atom-photon interactions

Since the discovery of the quantum Hall effect, topological phases of electrons have become a major research area in condensed matter physics. Many topological phases are predicted in lattices with specific engineering of ...

Making new materials using AI

There is an old saying, "If rubber is the material that opened the way to the ground, aluminum is the one that opened the way to the sky." New materials were always discovered at each turning point that changed human history. ...

Researchers solve 100-year-old metallurgy puzzle

To solve a 100-year puzzle in metallurgy about why single crystals show staged hardening while others don't, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists took it down to the atomistic level.

Understanding oxygen-reducing enzymes

Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas that plays a central role in the global carbon cycle. At the same time, it is an important energy source for us humans. About half of its annual production is made by microorganisms known ...

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Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification. The word crystal is derived from the Ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), meaning both “ice” and “rock crystal”, from κρύος (kruos), “icy cold, frost”.

Most common metals are polycrystals. Crystals are often symmetrically intergrown to form crystal twins.

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