Earth is a less volatile version of the Sun, study finds

Earth is a less volatile version of the Sun, study finds »
This image shows the bright light of a solar flare on the left side of the sun and an eruption of solar material shooting through the sun’s atmosphere, called a prominence eruption. Credit: NASA/Goddard/SDO

ANU scientists have found that Earth is made of the same elements as the Sun but has less of the volatile elements such as hydrogen, helium, oxygen and nitrogen.

Lead author of the study, Dr. Haiyang Wang, said they made the best estimate of the of Earth and the Sun with the aim of creating a new tool to measure the elemental composition of other stars and rocky that orbit them.

"The composition of a rocky planet is one of the most important missing pieces in our efforts to find out whether a planet is habitable or not," said Dr. Wang from the ANU Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA).

Other rocky planets in the Universe are devolatised pieces of their host stars, just like Earth.

Co-author and RSAA colleague Associate Professor Charley Lineweaver said every star had some kind of planetary system in orbit around it.

"The majority of stars probably have in or near the ," he said.

Co-author Professor Trevor Ireland, from the ANU Research School of Earth Sciences, said the team conducted the study by comparing the composition of Earth rocks with meteorites and the Sun's outer shell.

"This comparison yields a wealth of information about the way the Earth formed. There is a remarkably linear volatility trend that can be used as a baseline to understand the relationships between meteorite, planet and stellar compositions," he said.

The research will be published in the journal Icarus.


Explore further

Strong planetary magnetic fields like Earth's may protect oceans from stellar storms

More information: The Volatility Trend of Protosolar and Terrestrial Elemental Abundances, arXiv:1810.12741 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/1810.12741
Journal information: Icarus

Citation: Earth is a less volatile version of the Sun, study finds (2019, March 18) retrieved 24 May 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-03-earth-volatile-version-sun.html
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Mar 18, 2019
Sun, He 24,85 % , H 73,46%
Earth H2 0,53 ppm, He 0,00..%

Identical chemical composition. Like two twins.
No one can be so blind that it can not see it.

Mar 18, 2019
ducks, you should have made the effort to read past the headline.
& then the extra-effort to follow the link to read the original report.

H2O? All this H2O... Huh?
Wonder what that consists of?

Oh look!
Up in the sky!
It's a bird?
It's a plane?
Whoa! It's a helium blimp..
Where'd that come from?
Do those flashing lights say
"Duff Beer"?

Mar 18, 2019
Earth H2O ~1%.

Mar 18, 2019
I fail to understand the meaning of habitable zone. What is Earth's habitable zone? Most likely up to the stratosphere where life in microbial form is found.

How then is it possible to infer this small region on exo-planets?

Mar 18, 2019
I fail to understand the meaning of habitable zone. What is Earth's habitable zone? Most likely up to the stratosphere where life in microbial form is found.

How then is it possible to infer this small region on exo-planets?

They mean the 'Goldilocks' region where the planet is not too hot, not too cold to have life.

Mar 18, 2019
gc, ypu left out
They mean the 'Goldilocks' region where the planet is not too hot, not too cold to have life
{retaining an Earth-type atmosphere & hydrosphere enabling a biosphere for billions of years.}

That time span is vitally important. Otherwise you wind up with lifeless carcass such as Venus & Mars.

Stupid Design, stumbles again!

Mar 19, 2019
the 'Goldilocks' region where the planet is not too hot?
Brown dwarf (planets)..Mass Jupiter……..Temperature °K………Distance AU
ROXs 42Bb………….9 ………..………..1,950-2,000°K………..157AU
HD 106906 b………..11…………………1.800…………………~650
DH Tauri b………….12…………………2.750…………………..330
CT Chamaeleontis b..10,5-17 ……………2.500………………….440
HD 44627…………..13-14………………1.600-2.400…………...275
1RXS 1609 b……….14………………….1.800………………….330
UScoCTIO 108 b…..14………………….2.600…………………..670
Oph 11 B…………...21………………….2.478………………….243
HIP 78530 b………..24………………….2.700………………….740

Mar 19, 2019
ducks, what is a "brown dwarf planet"?
I have read of Brown Dwarf Stars but not BD planets.
It's a star or it's a planet.
Isn't the term "Brown" a measure of Stellar temperature?

Perhaps your intended meaning was a planet that orbits a Brown Dwarf Star?
& what evidence is there for a BD System even having a terrestrial version of a Goldilock's Zone?

Mar 19, 2019
ducks, you should have made the effort to read past the headline.
& then the extra-effort to follow the link to read the original report.

H2O? All this H2O... Huh?
Wonder what that consists of?

Oh look!
Up in the sky!
It's a bird?
It's a plane?
Whoa! It's a helium blimp..
Where'd that come from?
Do those flashing lights say
"Duff Beer"?

Whatcha talkin bout Willis?
You are, obviously, not just satisfied with saying less than nothing, with so many words. You must up the ante, by confirming that you are the most ignorant on the forum.

Oh look!
In the forum!
It's a HEE..
It's a HAWW..
Whoa! It's a jackass that likes the sound of its braying..
Where's that come from?
Do those HEE..HAWWs, say
"I'm a jackass"?

Mar 19, 2019
the 'Goldilocks' region where the planet is not too hot?
Brown dwarf (planets)..Mass Jupiter……..Temperature °K………Distance AU
ROXs 42Bb………….9 ………..………..1,950-2,000°K………..157AU
HD 106906 b………..11…………………1.800…………………~650
says wduckss

I see what you are getting at. In our SS, Jupiter and Saturn sized planets are actually "FAILED STARS" as they didn't have as much Mass as the Sun in the centre to start the Fusion process. Therefore, the giant outer planets are 'brown-dwarf PLANETS'.

Mar 19, 2019
Therefore, the giant outer planets are 'brown-dwarf PLANETS'.


Wrong.

Mar 19, 2019
Ah, auntieoral &
the sillyegghead.
Such a lovely couple of wethers.
Hows that spermiagenesis working for you boys?
Any idea of whatthehellisthat!? you two are expecting?

As for defining the difference between a star & a planet?
Wouldn't the simplest definition be: A star has a mass sufficient to have it's internal gravitational force initiate a nuclear reaction at some stage of it's life cycle?

Even if only fission instead of a fusion Bethe-Phoenix Cycle?

& a planet, even a super-giant, lacks the Mass to do so?

& that is the major difference between a Brown Dwarf Star & a Super Gas Giant Planet?
That the BD Star radiates? glows? in in the infra-red?
& a SGG Planet is producing what little heat it can. by pre-nuclear chemical processes?

In other words it would not be making any nuclei-synthesis radioactives?

Mar 19, 2019
Therefore, the giant outer planets are 'brown-dwarf PLANETS'.


Wrong.
says jonesy

And HOW do you KNOW it is wrong? Where is your EVIDENCE that it is wrong?
All you have done is to type the word wrong without a full explanation of how and why.
The oft-repeated reason for the "scientific method" is to provide an explanation, and YOU offer none. With your attitude, you should opt for a job at CNN.

Mar 19, 2019
Ah, auntieoral &
the sillyegghead.
Such a lovely couple of wethers.
Hows that spermiagenesis working for you boys?
Any idea of whatthehellisthat!? you two are expecting?

As for defining the difference between a star & a planet?
Wouldn't the simplest definition be: A star has a mass sufficient to have it's internal gravitational force initiate a nuclear reaction at some stage of it's life cycle?

Even if only fission instead of a fusion Bethe-Phoenix Cycle?
& a planet, even a super-giant, lacks the Mass to do so?
& that is the major difference between a Brown Dwarf Star & a Super Gas Giant Planet?
That the BD Star radiates? glows? in in the infra-red?
& a SGG Planet is producing what little heat it can. by pre-nuclear chemical processes?
In other words it would not be making any nuclei-synthesis radioactives?
says rrwilliejoe

Have you been getting drunk again? WHY are you imitating what I have said already (in so many words)? It's annoying. Stop it.

Mar 19, 2019
Ah, auntieoral ..HAWW...HEE....
Even if only fission instead of a fusion Bethe-Phoenix Cycle?

& a planet, even a super-giant, lacks the Mass to do so?

& that is the major difference between a Brown Dwarf Star & a Super Gas Giant Planet?
That the BD Star radiates? glows? in in the infra-red?
& a SGG Planet is producing what little heat it can. by pre-nuclear chemical processes?

In other words it would not be making any nuclei-synthesis radioactives?

There you go again.
Whatcha brayin' bout Willis?
If it is happening on Earth, why not Jupiter -- https://blogs.sci...hs-heat/

Now, go take your meds, and give your ignorance a break.

Mar 19, 2019
@Castrogiovanni
More precisely, planets and brown dwarfs weighing less than 13M Jupiter are Failed stars (of course nonsense, see the enclosed data).
Planets (by definition) do not create light (heat etc.) and also incorrect, same data.
Temperatures from 1600 to 2800 are the same as for a large number of stars
Star ............. °K
R Cygni .......2.200
CW Leonis...2.200
IK Tauri........2.100
W Aquilae....1.800
T Cephei........2.400
S Pegasi ......2.107
Chi Cygni.........2.441-2.742
R Leporis..........2.245-2.290
S Cassiopeiae..1.800


Mar 19, 2019

If it is happening on Earth, why not Jupiter -- https://blogs.sci...hs-heat/



More stupid article I have not seen it long ago. Earth has several hundred active volcanoes, radioactivity = 0.
Sell the testicles as a kidney, or they are complete ignorants (either accidentally or intentionally). Classical abuse of scientific space and science. Horror.

Mar 19, 2019
sillyegghead needs an editor, he cam't even read his own ginnerish!

Mar 19, 2019
Why do we have the nerve to think that Mars is......dead! Remember Jurassic Park's biologist: ...."Life will find a way!" Maybe it is underground. We found life HERE a few years ago under over a mile of overlaying rock in South Africa. Also by thermal vents with temperatures over 800 degrees F. and at pressures..quite high being thousands and thousands of feet deep.

Assumptions of this nature could cost lives of future Martian explorers who thoughtlessly drill without any precautions of what they might bring....up!

Mar 19, 2019
Wow, now there's a big surprise: Earth has the same elemental constitution as the Sun, you know, just like they came from the same place, except for the volatiles which all boiled off... in, you know, the Sun's heat and stuff.

Gee, maybe they formed from the same solar nebula! Inside the same giant molecular cloud! And that's why all the elements are present in the same concentrations, which could only happen not only in the same cloud but the same *part* of the cloud!

Duhhhh ummmm.

Mar 20, 2019
@Osiris1
Contrary to scare people, there is scientific evidence.
Why? 50 years of intense search. Result = 0. No water, no hydrogen, no life.
No one can cure your fantasies and your divination from incomparable cases. Who sees white mice, for him there is no scientific evidence.

@Da Schneib
"Earth has the same elemental constitution as the Sun"
Good morning, you just woke up.
Sun, He 24,85 % , H 73,46%
Earth H2 0,53 ppm, He 0,00..%

Mar 20, 2019
ducks, you are conflating the measurement of quantities of elements between the Sun & Earth.
When this article is specifically focused on the existence of similar list of elements, shared by the Sun & Earth.

After all, would it be fair of me to compare you & I that way?
We both consist of the same elements. Yet you keep making an effort to prove you have a disconcertingly lesser quantity
of cerebral materials.

How is that fact relevant to the research in this article?

***************
Osiris1, Isis still hasn't found that missing canoptic jar containing your brains? Pity.

Cause what does a fabulist movie have to do with badly written non-science fantasy stories?


Mar 20, 2019
& their back,
the bleating wethers of
auntieoral & sillyegghead.
Such a lovely couple!

deer aintieoral, do you know the difference between digging into the ground & finding radioactives?
vs the process of transmutation of simple elements to complex elements, that occurs during a star's fusion cycle?

deer sillyegghead, whom did you plagiarize this time?
It is tiresomely common for whenever you frauds start with your wild accusations & denunciations?
That new indictments are coming down on your heads.

I mean you have no credibility.

You have to bear the shame of your sordid reputation.
& notoriety for deceitful language.
Even among the coven of fakirs & scammers with whom you keep company.

Mar 20, 2019
If you use (or have), you have a disconcertingly lesser quantityof cerebral materials, you would know that comparison is a common nonsense.
There is no similarity between these two bodies (quantity, quality, temperature, chemical composition) etc.
-Sun Photospheric composition (by mass)
Hydrogen 73.46%
Helium 24.85%
Oxygen 0.77%
Carbon 0.29%
Iron 0.16%
Neon 0.12%

-Earth Chemical composition
Silica……………SiO2…..60.2%
Alumina………...Al2O3…15.2%
Lime…………….CaO…….5.5%
Magnesia……….MgO……3.1%
iron(II) oxide……FeO…….3.8%
sodium oxide…..Na2O……3.0%
potassium oxide.K2O……..2.8%
iron(III) oxide…...Fe2O3…..2.5%
water…………….H2O…….1.4%
carbon dioxide….CO2…….1.2%
titanium dioxide…TiO2……0.7%

Mar 20, 2019
"... There is no similarity between these two bodies ..."

ducks you, yes you, are the only one insisting on completely avoiding the subject of the article.

" The Sun & the Earth physically consist of the same elements. Except for the lighter elements lost to space. Period.

You are the only one who keeps raving about the (quantity, quality, temperature, chemical composition) etc.

Only you. Please find a dictionary & look up the word "irrelevant". & you will find your picture gaping back at you with a look of ass_tonishment.

& by the way.
Are not the chemical compositions based on a foundation of elements?

Mar 21, 2019
A little 'more math' for you. Maybe, still, understand (unlikely).
Composition of Jupiter's atmosphere by volume:
89% ± 2.0% hydrogen (H2)
10% ± 2.0% helium (He)
0.3% ± 0.1% methane (CH4)
0.026% ± 0.004% Ammonia (NH3)
Saturn has a composition of atmospheres by volume:
96.3 ± 2.4% hydrogen (H2)
3.25 ± 2.4% helium (He)
0.45 ± 0.2% methane (CH4)
0.0125 ± 0.0075% ammonia (NH3)
Uranus has a composition of atmospheres by volume:
83 ± 3% hydrogen (H2)
15 ± 3% helium (He)
2.3% methane (CH4)
0.009% (0.007-0.015%) hydrogen deuterium (HD)
Neptune's atmosphere composition by volume is:
80% ± 3.2% of hydrogen (H2)
19% ± 3.2% helium (He)
1.5% ± 0.5% methane (CH4)
~ 0.019% hydrogen deuterium (HD)
-0.00015% Ethane (C2H6)
-Sun Photospheric composition (by mass)
Hydrogen 73.46%
Helium 24.85%
Oxygen 0.77%
Carbon 0.29%
Iron 0.16%
Neon 0.12%

Mar 21, 2019
Therefore, the giant outer planets are 'brown-dwarf PLANETS'.


Wrong.
says jonesy

And HOW do you KNOW it is wrong?
Surveillance_Egg_Unit

Instead of basing your usual stupid opinion on ignorance, just look up the formal definition of "Brown dwarf planet" for yourself and see why you are wrong;

http://epicroadtr...anets.22
"...It is formally defined by the International Astronomical Union by its official statement that "Substellar objects with true masses above the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are "brown dwarfs", ..."

-therefore any giant outer planet less than that mass is by definition NOT a "brown dwarf planet".
Some but NOT all giant outer planets are "brown dwarf planets".
Since Jupiter and Saturn have masses below that mass, you are WRONG! i.e. Jupiter and Saturn are NOT "brown dwarf planets"

Mar 21, 2019
Y Brown Dwarft
https://en.wikipe...8%920714 "Masa 3-10 M Jup" WISE 0855−0714
https://en.wikipe.../2M1207b "Its mass is well below the calculated limit for deuterium fusion in brown dwarfs, which is 13 Jupiter masses."
https://en.wikipe...149-0403 " is a free-floating planetary-mass object Mass 4–7 Jupiter masses"
https://en.wikipe...i/OTS_44 "11.5 times the mass of Jupiter"
"https://en.wikipe..._class_Y " SDWFS 1433+35" + https://exoplanet...covered/ " It could be a brown dwarf … OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb is about the same mass as Earth"
https://en.wikipe...8%2B2650
" WISE 1828+2650 in the range 2–4 Gyr, leading to mass estimate of about 3–6 MJup."
https://en.wikipe...0806-661 "

Mar 21, 2019
Thanks for that wduckss.
So, if I read all this right, for a said 'planet' to be large enough to be also a brown dwarf, it needs to have a mass at least about 13 times that of Jupiter.
Can any real expert on it here confirm that is correct?

Your other links are also interesting but make me wonder whether one day an escaped planet from another solar system other than our own might get too close to or even collide with the Earth.
Has any expert mathematically estimated the probability of that happening in, lets say, the next 100 years?
Obviously, it must be an extremely low probability else it would be a miracle that life on Earth has lasted this long.

Mar 21, 2019
oh jeebus ducks, you keep going witth all those irrelevant tables & you're going to wind up babbling bible code, hermetic numerology & astrological horoscopes.

& while your setting out the tables? Be sure you wipe them down real good.

& yes you can keep the tips you find on the tables in your station.

speaking of jeebus
"jeebus! I need a stiff drink after that one..."

Mar 25, 2019
Therefore, the giant outer planets are 'brown-dwarf PLANETS'.


Wrong.
says jonesy

And HOW do you KNOW it is wrong?
Surveillance_Egg_Unit

just look up the formal definition of "Brown dwarf planet" for yourself and see why you are correct;

http://epicroadtr...anets.22
"...It is formally defined by the International Astronomical Union by its official statement that "Substellar objects with true masses above the limiting mass for thermonuclear fusion of deuterium are "brown dwarfs", ..."

-therefore any giant outer planet less than that mass is by definition NOT a "brown dwarf planet".
Some but NOT all giant outer planets are "brown dwarf planets".
Since Jupiter and Saturn have masses below that mass, you are RIGHT! i.e. Jupiter and Saturn are "brown dwarf planets"
says humy

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