NASA Juno data indicate another possible volcano on Jupiter moon Io

July 14, 2018, NASA
This annotated image highlights the location of the new heat source close to the south pole of Io. The image was generated from data collected on Dec. 16, 2017, by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument aboard NASA's Juno mission when the spacecraft was about 290,000 miles (470,000 kilometers) from the Jovian moon. The scale to the right of image depicts of the range of temperatures displayed in the infrared image. Higher recorded temperatures are characterized in brighter colors - lower temperatures in darker colors. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/ASI/INAF/JIRAM

Data collected by NASA's Juno spacecraft using its Jovian InfraRed Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument point to a new heat source close to the south pole of Io that could indicate a previously undiscovered volcano on the small moon of Jupiter. The infrared data were collected on Dec. 16, 2017, when Juno was about 290,000 miles (470,000 kilometers) away from the moon.

"The new Io hotspot JIRAM picked up is about 200 miles (300 kilometers) from the nearest previously mapped hotspot," said Alessandro Mura, a Juno co-investigator from the National Institute for Astrophysics in Rome. "We are not ruling out movement or modification of a previously discovered hot spot, but it is difficult to imagine one could travel such a distance and still be considered the same feature."

The Juno team will continue to evaluate data collected on the Dec. 16 flyby, as well as JIRAM data that will be collected during future (and even closer) flybys of Io. Past NASA missions of exploration that have visited the Jovian system (Voyagers 1 and 2, Galileo, Cassini and New Horizons), along with ground-based observations, have located over 150 active volcanoes on Io so far. Scientists estimate that about another 250 or so are waiting to be discovered.

Juno has logged nearly 146 million miles (235 million kilometers) since entering Jupiter's orbit on July 4, 2016. Juno's 13th science pass will be on July 16.

Juno launched on Aug. 5, 2011, from Cape Canaveral, Florida. During its mission of exploration, Juno soars low over the planet's cloud tops—as close as about 2,100 miles (3,400 kilometers). During these flybys, Juno is probing beneath the obscuring cloud cover of Jupiter and studying its auroras to learn more about the planet's origins, structure, atmosphere and magnetosphere.

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cantdrive85
1.8 / 5 (10) Jul 14, 2018
Gotta love NASA's wandering "volcanoes" claims, as if mountains can move about. Nevermind that the hotspots are in all the wrong places, falsifying the tidal kneading guesses. The Occam's Razor explanation of the activity on Io is the hotspots are due to electric discharge phenomena occurring on the surface of Io.
wduckss
5 / 5 (1) Jul 15, 2018
If the temperatures are below a 0 ° C hotspot then the article is correct.
"Io is a small object exposed to strong tidal forces of Jupiter and Europa; it possesses a very thin atmosphere which "ranges from 3.3 × 10−5 to 3 × 10−4 pascals (Pa) or 0.3 to 3 nbar". With 90% of SO2 in the atmosphere there are also free O2 (and SO, NaCl). As time goes by, O2 is going to increase its share because the average temperatures on Io are 20° higher than its boiling point. SO2 has a melting point at -72°C and the boiling point at -10°C, so the low temperatures (ranging from -180°C to – 140°C) remove it quickly from the atmosphere." http://www.global...OGEN.pdf
Shootist
4 / 5 (4) Jul 15, 2018
too many idiots. cantdonothing, io is basically made of molten sulfur. so yeah. mountains can move.

go away to scrool or something.
jonesdave
3 / 5 (8) Jul 16, 2018
......hotspots are due to electric discharge phenomena occurring on the surface of Io.


Hahahahaha. Dear me, where do these people get this crap from?
antialias_physorg
3.9 / 5 (7) Jul 16, 2018
where do these people get this crap from?

Currently they're just pasting random sciency-sounding words together and then adding "electric discharge" somewhere in the sentence.

A bot would do better at making any kind of sense.
cantdrive85
1.7 / 5 (6) Jul 16, 2018
io is basically made of molten sulfur. so yeah. mountains can move.

Little icy Io at -130 degrees Celsius is now "molten sulfur". No comment of the volcanoes being in the wrong place, must be something "dark" that is responsible.
jonesdave
2.6 / 5 (5) Jul 16, 2018
io is basically made of molten sulfur. so yeah. mountains can move.

Little icy Io at -130 degrees Celsius is now "molten sulfur". No comment of the volcanoes being in the wrong place, must be something "dark" that is responsible.


Yes, molten sulphur. As detected. Also probably basaltic material, given the temperature. And why are they in the wrong place? Where would you like them? In orbit?
rossim22
1.8 / 5 (5) Jul 16, 2018

Yes, molten sulphur. As detected. Also probably basaltic material, given the temperature. And why are they in the wrong place? Where would you like them? In orbit?


Well, the unfalsifiable claim that gravitational tiding provides the heat and energy to power the apparent volcanoes also predicts where these volcanoes should be on Io. They're about as far off as they could be.

"Our analysis supports the prevailing view that most of the heat is generated in the asthenosphere, but we found that volcanic activity is located 30 to 60 degrees East from where we expect it to be," said Christopher Hamilton, lead author.

"We found a systematic eastward offset between observed and predicted volcano locations that can't be reconciled with any existing solid body tidal heating models."

Just be cognizant of the fact that gravitational tiding isn't as airtight as you seem to believe. Sometimes it's not just a little off, the theory doesn't need tweaked, it simply doesn't work.
wduckss
not rated yet Jul 16, 2018
Io Atmosphere:
Surface pressure: trace
Composition by volume 90% sulfur dioxide

Sulfur is only in the fourth place (with O2).

Much better to use the term cold outbreak of matter of the hotspot (according to working temperatures of the elements and compounds
http://www.svemir...elements )
barakn
4 / 5 (4) Jul 16, 2018
"Possibilities to explain the offset include a faster than expected rotation for Io, an interior structure that permits magma to travel significant distances from where the most heating occurs to the points where it is able erupt on the surface, or a missing component in existing tidal heating models, like fluid tides from an underground magma ocean, according to the team.

The magnetometer instrument on NASA's Galileo mission detected a magnetic field around Io, suggesting the presence of a global subsurface magma ocean. As Io orbits Jupiter, it moves inside the planet's vast magnetic field. Researchers think this could induce a magnetic field in Io if it had a global ocean of electrically conducting magma."
https://www.nasa....ced.html

Instead of rossim22's "it simply doesn't work," we have a magma ocean hypothesis for which there is magnet evidence.
jonesdave
2.3 / 5 (3) Jul 16, 2018
Just be cognizant of the fact that gravitational tiding isn't as airtight as you seem to believe. Sometimes it's not just a little off, the theory doesn't need tweaked, it simply doesn't work.


No, it is falsifiable. Which is why, using the orbital parameters, volcanic activity was predicted before it was seen. There is certainly no alternative, scientifically viable mechanism for the volcanism.

rossim22
2 / 5 (8) Jul 16, 2018
That is another unfalsifiable claim unless we drill down into Io and strike magma. There are a lot of "ifs" in that hypothesis with more than one ad hoc assumption.

It's unfortunate that most of these drivers for planetary phenomena always seem to be hidden in some way. That doesn't condemn them to be wrong, of course, but increases the possibility of confirmational bias in an industry that is predicated on receiving funding for furthering only established ideas.

For instance, if everyone on earth already "knows" there is a sub-surface ocean on Enceladus because there "must be" then every explanation after it's not detected will assume it already exists (see: dirty snowball theory).
jonesdave
3.3 / 5 (7) Jul 16, 2018
That is another unfalsifiable claim unless we drill down into Io and strike magma.


Errrm, no, we can detect the magma spectroscopically on the surface.

It's unfortunate that most of these drivers for planetary phenomena always seem to be hidden in some way........is predicated on receiving funding for furthering only established ideas.


Nope, we can measure the tidal bulge, and use that to work out the energy deposited in the interior, and the temperature it must therefore be. The rest of that is just the usual whine of cranks who have no valid hypothesis of their own.

see: dirty snowball theory


What about it? The Rosetta mission was spectacularly successful, and confirmed much of what we already knew and/ or hypothesised about comets, as well as revealing new data. It certainly put another nail in the coffin of the already dead and buried electric comet woo.
barakn
5 / 5 (5) Jul 16, 2018
It's unfortunate that most of these drivers for planetary phenomena always seem to be hidden in some way. -rossim22
Only hidden to lazy people that can't be bothered to do a basic internet search. There are many tools that can be used to study planet and moon interiors. Enceladus, for example, librates too much to be a rigid body, and in fact librates so much that the shell must be completely decoupled from the interior, i.e. it is floating. Subtle deviations of a moon's gravitational field away from spherical symmetry, due to both rotation and internal substructures, can be measured by repeated flybys of a spacecraft, as was also done for Enceladus, revealing evidence for a global layer of something with the density of liquid water. Two separate lines of evidence pointing at the same conclusion.
https://agupubs.o...GL063384
https://www.scien...15003899
wduckss
1 / 5 (4) Jul 16, 2018
Both links are speculation, without proof.
Temperature on Enceladus -240 ° C -198 ° C -128 ° C,
Atmosphere: Trace, significant spatial variability
If it is true that there is H2O, where is H2? The free H2 must exist in the atmosphere because there are no temperatures that remove H2 from the atmosphere. Naivians believe that fairy tales are proof.
Saturn has a composition of atmospheres by volume:
96.3 ± 2.4% hydrogen (H2)
3.25 ± 2.4% helium (He)
0.45 ± 0.2% methane (CH4)
Why would something be worthy of Enceladus and not worth Saturn?

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