An expressway for electrons in oxide heterostructures

July 30, 2018, National University of Singapore
An expressway for electrons in oxide heterostructures
Figure illustrates the importance of strong (electronic) screening in determining the electron mobility at interfaces of oxide heterostructures. The significant improvement in electron mobility can enable the development of novel devices. Credit: Andrivo Rusydi and Xiao CHI

NUS physicists have developed a new methodology for determining the impact of screening effects on charge carrier mobility at the interface of complex material structures.

Oxide heterostructures, which are composed of layers of different materials, exhibit unique physical properties at their interfaces (junction between two oxide materials). These properties do not exist in their parent compounds. An example is the oxide heterostucture comprising a film of lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) on strontium titanate (SrTiO3) that can show both insulating and conductive properties depending on the thickness of the film. When the LaAlO3 film thickness is increased and becomes 4 unit cells (~20 nm) or more, the material properties at the interface abruptly change from being electrically insulating to electrically conducting (metallic) with high electron mobility (the speed of the flow of electrons). However, there is limited understanding on the mechanism of this high electron mobility and the physical parameters that influence this unusual behaviour.

The research team co-led by Prof Andrivo RUSYDI and Prof ARIANDO, both from the Department of Physics and Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Institute (NUSNNI) NanoCore, NUS has developed a new methodology involving a combination of advanced measurement techniques (spectroscopic ellipsometry, synchrotron-based soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and charge transport measurements) to determine the influence of localised charges on the mobility of electrons at the oxide interface. These localised charges can shield (or "screen") electrons in such a way that they do not "see" each other, significantly reducing the coulomb repulsion between them. Screening the coulomb repulsion helps to reduce correlation effects between electrons. This is known as the "screening effect" and it allows the electrons at the interface to travel with higher mobility. The new method developed by the NUS research team allowed them to detect both screened and unscreened electrons, thereby shedding light on how they dictate the electronic properties of a complex oxide heterostructure, particularly at a buried interface.

The researchers involved in this team have applied this method to an oxide heterostructure made up of lanthanum strontium aluminium tantalate ((La0.3Sr0.7)(Al0.65Ta0.35)O3 (LSAT) and SrTiO3. They discovered the presence of a new midgap state populated by localised charges (which are transferred from the surface of LSAT) at the interface. A midgap state is a state occurring within the optical band gap. Interestingly, they found that such a midgap state is responsible for determining the transport properties of the interface. When there are more localised charges at the interface, the mobile electrons are further shielded from those in the surrounding bulk material. This significantly increases the interface electron mobility.

The researchers also found that the electron mobility increases with LSAT layer thickness and is associated with an increase in the midgap state (having more localised charges). The electronic screening effect plays a dominant role in electron mobility at the interface, which in this case resulted in an enhancement of electron mobility by more than 25 times.

Prof Rusydi said, "Our finding shows the importance of the electronic screening effect in determining at the interface of complex oxide heterostructures. The experimental techniques developed provide a new methodology for studying the properties of a buried material . With these new insights, material scientists can develop advanced with unique properties for new device functionalities."

Explore further: New step towards future complex oxide electronics

More information: Xiao Chi et al. Large Enhancement of 2D Electron Gases Mobility Induced by Interfacial Localized Electron Screening Effect, Advanced Materials (2018). DOI: 10.1002/adma.201707428

Related Stories

New step towards future complex oxide electronics

November 22, 2017

Researchers from TU Delft, Cornell University and the University of Cagliari report an interesting method for turning a highly insulating material into a highly conducting system. The process involves combining three different ...

Emerging new properties at oxide interfaces

November 29, 2011

In many ionic materials, including the oxides, surfaces created along specific directions can become electrically charged. By the same token, such electronic charging, or 'polarisation', can also occur at the interface of ...

Creating an electrical conduit using two insulators

January 14, 2016

Revolutionary new electronic devices, such as those required for next-generation computers, require new and novel material systems. Scientists at the University of Minnesota and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory showed ...

Recommended for you

Producing defectless metal crystals of unprecedented size

October 19, 2018

A research group at the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials, within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), has published an article in Science describing a new method to convert inexpensive polycrystalline metal ...

Nanodiamonds as photocatalysts

October 19, 2018

Climate change is in full swing and will continue unabated as long as CO2 emissions continue. One possible solution is to return CO2 to the energy cycle: CO2 could be processed with water into methanol, a fuel that can be ...

Shining light on the separation of rare earth metals

October 18, 2018

Inside smartphones and computer displays are metals known as the rare earths. Mining and purifying these metals involves waste- and energy-intense processes. Better processes are needed. Previous work has shown that specific ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.