Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation.

As a system gets smaller, fluctuations away from equilibrium begin to dominate its behavior. This makes the data from experiments in small systems, such as biological molecular motors and nanoscale magnets, messy and difficult to make sense of. Fluctuation theorems help researchers make sense of the fluctuations in these systems.

Fluctuation theorems are refinements of the second law of thermodynamics, which states that all kinds of energy in the material world disperses if it is not hindered from doing so.

A team of researchers from Purdue and Peking University, led by Tongcang Li, assistant professor of physics and astronomy at Purdue, tested the differential fluctuation theorem for work production and several other theorems. They levitated a nanoparticle in a vacuum chamber with a laser, using a tiny optical tweezer to measure instantaneous position and velocity. This mechanism allows them to trap the nanoparticle in air continuously for weeks or months and acquire large sets of data.

The research was published in *Physical Review Letters*.

**Explore further:**
Physicists extend stochastic thermodynamics deeper into quantum territory

**More information:**
Thai M. Hoang et al. Experimental Test of the Differential Fluctuation Theorem and a Generalized Jarzynski Equality for Arbitrary Initial States, *Physical Review Letters* (2018). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.080602

## KBK

suddenly dominated, in your understanding..FINALLY (jebus, what took you so long!!!!)....dominated by..quantum fluctuations in the thermodynamic aspects. Quantum spooky, dimensional, not obeying Newtonian rules. Thermodynamics can go backward and violates the 'laws of physics' - which are Newtonian in nature.

Quantum has no such rules. And now, you finally understand, that thermodynamics are quantum in nature in those mentioned systems.

When you look at all the stories of multidimensional systems, over unity systems, anti-gravity systems, FTL systems, it all makes sense. Perfect sense.

EG, SHT 'Solar Hydrogen Trends' bought by the military. Their energy conversion system, has a minimum 700% efficiency. Go find photos on the net, from a military trade show.

One of hundreds you will find, if you start looking. It's the next silicon valley, but far bigger. ~100x bigger.

## Da Schneib

## mackita

## torbjorn_b_g_larsson

@jd: "the Differential Fluctuation Theorem is a generalization of Onsager's theory on reciprocal relations ... does not apply when Coriolis forces are present".

First, Onsager's theory is a small fluctuation linearization of macroscale systems [ https://en.wikipe...elations ], while the fluctuation theorems are properties of general fluctuations in microscale systems. Jarzynski's paper on the DFT [ https://arxiv.org...8286.pdf ] mentions that these are arguably properties of spacetime histories.

And as such these properties rely on nothing more than detailed balance of microscale processes. Coriolis effects are macroscale of rotating systems, not microscale of collisions and statistical fluctuations.

[tbctd]

## torbjorn_b_g_larsson

@KBK: "quantum fluctuations".

*All* statistical fluctuations. Most biochemical processes are classical on the scale of chemical processes.

@mackita: "It's all about the the fact, that quantum mechanics violates 2nd thermodynamic law."

The fluctuation theorems are all about the exact opposite fact, based on and thus - successfully according to the article - testing that entropy is increasing. And the other article you point to is also all about the fact that quantities like entropy - and its increase - are found in quantum systems. Are you not reading your so called "references"?

Also, no one denies that fluctuations, whether classical or quantum, leads to microscale violations of macroscale entropy. They are, to use a meme, the exceedingly rare (as seen on macroscale) exceptions that proves the rule.

## mackita

## Da Schneib