Device creates negative mass—and a novel way to generate lasers

January 10, 2018, University of Rochester
In this optical microcavity, created by the lab of Nick Vamivakas, confined light interacts with an atomically thin semiconductor to create particles with negative mass. The device also presents “a way to generate laser light with an incrementally small amount of power,” says Vamivakas, an associate professor of quantum optics and quantum physics at Rochester’s Institute of Optics. Credit: Michael Osadciw/University of Rochester

Most objects react in predictable ways when force is applied to them—unless they have "negative mass." And then they react exactly opposite from what you would expect.

Now University of Rochester researchers have succeeded in creating particles with negative in an atomically thin semiconductor, by causing it to interact with confined light in an optical microcavity.

This alone is "interesting and exciting from a physics perspective," says Nick Vamivakas, an associate professor of quantum optics and quantum physics at Rochester's Institute of Optics. "But it also turns out the device we've created presents a way to generate laser light with an incrementally small amount of power."

The device, described in Nature Physics, consists of two mirrors that create an optical microcavity, which confines light at different colors of the spectrum depending on how the mirrors are spaced.

Researchers in Vamivakas' lab, including co-lead authors Sajal Dhara (now with the Indian Institute of Technology) and Ph.D. student Chitraleema Chakraborty, embedded an atomically thin molybdenum diselenide semiconductor in the microcavity.

The semiconductor was placed in such a way that its interaction with the confined light resulted in small particles from the —called excitons—combining with photons from the confined to form polaritons.

"By causing an exciton to give up some of its identity to a photon to create a , we end up with an object that has a negative mass associated with it," Vamivakas explains. "That's kind of a mind-bending thing to think about, because if you try to push or pull it, it will go in the opposite direction from what your intuition would tell you."

Other research groups have been experimenting with similar devices, Vamivakas says, but this is the first device to produce particles with negative mass.

Though applications are "still down the road," Vamivakas adds, his lab will continue to explore:

  • How the device might serve as a substrate for producing lasers. "With the polaritons we've created with this device, the prescription for getting a to operate is completely different," Vamivakas says. "The system starts lasing at a much lower energy input" than traditional lasers now in use.
  • The physical implications of creating negative mass in the device. "We're dreaming up ways to apply pushes and pulls—maybe by applying an electrical field across the device—and then studying how these polaritons move around in the under application of external force."

Explore further: Defects in atomically thin semiconductor emit single photons

More information: S. Dhara et al. Anomalous dispersion of microcavity trion-polaritons, Nature Physics (2017). DOI: 10.1038/nphys4303

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TheGhostofOtto1923
not rated yet Jan 10, 2018
So if you had a space ship with a negative mass you could put the engine on the front and use it to deflect dust?
÷)
mackita
1.7 / 5 (3) Jan 10, 2018
creating particles with negative mass in an atomically thin semiconductor
They probably talk about some quasiparticles, which behave like sorta energetic "bubbles" within material given but not vacuum itself - i.e. they're still massive with positive rest mass with respect to vacuum. Such an observation is indeed welcomed, because in dense aether model the vacuum is behaving like sorta condensate too, so that observation of negative mass particles inside solid phase would open the way for their formation in vacuum too. But these two observations cannot be confused together.

According to some theories (H. White) the thrust of "antigravity" drives (EMDrive) could be caused by ejecting particles of negative or at least imaginary rest mass ("scalar waves" of Nicola Tesla). The above experiment would make this hypothesis just a bit more plausible again...
ellbeeyoo
1 / 5 (1) Jan 10, 2018
Negative mass??? I think not. Negative mass has an equivalent negative energy and such a thing, while theoretically possible, has never been seen and most believe that the energies needed to create negative energy are well beyond human ability to achieve.
The hypothetical Warp drive requires negative energy and the reason we don't have warp drives is that it has been found impossible to create negative energy. If it were this easy to create 'negative' mass/energy we would have a warp drive in no time, and I bet everything I have that doesn't happen.
mackita
2.3 / 5 (3) Jan 10, 2018
The hypothetical Warp drive requires negative energy and the reason we don't have warp drives is that it has been found impossible to create negative energy
Well, according to these theories the EMDrive works just like weak warp drive. The people working for NASA are claiming, they have proven it already by curving of space-time about EMDrive. It's indeed not easy - but it's also not impossible.
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (6) Jan 10, 2018
Negative mass has an equivalent negative energy and such a thing, while theoretically possible, has never been seen

They are talking about a quasiparticle (a polariton) which behaves *as if* it has negative mass. Note that these are of the boson type.

Negative mass??? I think not.

What you are thinking about are fermions (stuff made up of quarks like protons and neutrons or leptons like electrons). The quasiparticles in the article are are not fermions.
mackita
4 / 5 (2) Jan 10, 2018
Other than that, the particles of negative mass should be unstable by their very definition: their negative mass would cause them to decay fast instead of collapse. This is also why the above article is named "Anomalous DISPERSION of microcavity trion-polaritons" - not CONDENSATION. But the negative mass object should also behave like the perpetuum mobile and to accelerate spontaneously. Every braking force would accelerate it even more because of negative inertia. Technically speaking every perpetuum mobile would behave like an object of negative inertia... If they would be of negative mass they should also levitate - it's evident that such an objects will not be quite common in our everyday life...
DarkLordKelvin
4.7 / 5 (3) Jan 10, 2018
*sigh* .. why do otherwise intelligent physicists get caught up in the need to make outlandish, obviously unphysical claims? They did not create an entity that actually possesses "negative mass". They created configurations of energy states within a material that CAN BE CHARACTERIZED as a quasiparticle; there is no requirement that we think of it as a particle-like entity, it's just convenient from certain respects. In turn that quasiparticle behaves, in at least some respects, as if it were a particle with "negative mass", although from the sound of things, "negative inertia" would be a more accurate description of the phenomena they actually observed.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 10, 2018
@DarkLordKelvin The headlines are traditionally sensationalist and simplified, but their rational core is still present there. Why do you think, negative inertia would be more accurate description than negative mass?
xponen
4.8 / 5 (4) Jan 10, 2018
Caution: nobody should take the weird named particles with "negative mass" literally... it is just waves (like ripple on a string) in solid material that solid-state physicist/fan label as "particle".

for example: polariton, exciton or plasmon... is just a ripples made by atoms in crystals or ripples made by electrons in metal that had cool names... it's like calling the mexican waves in a stadium full of soccer fan as "human-iton particles" .

more detail can be found in solid state physic textbook.

do not get fooled by these stupid naming.
xponen
5 / 5 (2) Jan 10, 2018
it's just like that thing: "positive charge flowing in a circuit".... it's just an idea/model not what literally happen.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 10, 2018
Negative mass matter is closely related to so-called mirror matter, warp field and reversal of time arrow concepts and it may not be so exotic at the end, until we admit very low concentration of it. Negative mass has very simple representation: a bubble, i.e. volume area of more sparse matter inside dense matter block. Within condensed phase the negative matter particles can be therefore observed quite easily. Of course, such a bubbles are still more dense than vacuum, so that their negative mass has only relative meaning there. But as I said above, by introducing a sufficient amount of energy into a vacuum we could prepare volume area of negative mass (warp field) even there. Tippler's cylinder is supposed to create warp field by centrifugation of vacuum for example. Dr. Ronald Mallett is struggling to create it practically by circulating laser beams.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 10, 2018
"positive charge flowing in a circuit".... it's just an idea/model not what literally happen
Well in metals - but in semiconductors with holes this thing actually happens routinely. We may imagine the vacuum like a metal or degenerated semiconductor with large excess of electrons, but presence of holes cannot be excluded in it. Most probably these holes would have character of bubbles i.e. holes surrounded with massive wall. Such an artifacts wouldn't have truly negative rest mass, only imaginary one - and they would correspond the tachyons. There are indicia that scalar waves of Nicola Tesla (the existence of which was censored so far) are such a tachyons, i.e. partially negative matter. Magnetic monopoles should be also tachyons. The anapole character of dark matter is currently a subject of intensive research. So that at the end the negative matter may not be so exotic - it just cannot exist in its dense condensed state - which is logical because of its negative gravity.
Da Schneib
not rated yet Jan 10, 2018
This is not really negative mass. Polaritons don't have mass, negative or otherwise.
Mimath224
4.5 / 5 (2) Jan 10, 2018
@Da Schneib In addition to what you say I'm not sure that a 'push or pull' as described above would count as a definition of negative mass. I do understand that there are many possible 'attributes' that neg m might display, though I hasten to add that I haven't gone into any real detail when reading about neg m. It would seem to me that before one starts using meg m terminology one would need to examine the impact on KE, SR, GR etc. In other words, would I be correct in suggesting that using 'neg m' as in the article is perhaps premature?
Da Schneib
5 / 5 (3) Jan 11, 2018
@Mimath, more like nonexistent. And I mean experimentally. What these guys are saying is that it acts as if it had negative mass, if it had mass and acted like things that have mass do. Which it doesn't.
Mimath224
not rated yet Jan 11, 2018
@Da Schneib Thanks for the reply..understood. Do you know of reasonable experimental papers on neg m on the net as I'd like to know a bit more? Thanks in advance.
Da Schneib
5 / 5 (1) Jan 11, 2018
@Mimath, the only results I know about that indicate "negative mass" are in articles here on PhysOrg, and they're all about quasiparticles, not about real massive particles with negative mass. As I said this is not really negative mass.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 11, 2018
the only results I know about that indicate "negative mass" are in articles here on PhysOrg
Google knows way more. The official stance of article source, i.e. the Washington University is the same. Another negative mass experiment, it has this denomination even in original article title. Again, it's about negative effective mass, not about negative mass per se.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 11, 2018
Don't dismiss negative mass Thinking about matter that gravitationally repels other objects could help resolve outstanding mysteries in cosmology. I explained here many times, that dark matter behaves like system of mutually repulsive particles, which are still attracted to normal matter. With compare to normal matter they're attracted to negative gradient of gravitational potential ("bubbles follow holes"), so that they condense at the perimeter of massive bodies and galaxies. That means, that negative matter doesn't imply, that such material would be repelled by normal matter or even levitate in gravity field of normal matter. It's "negativism" applies only to another negative matter - and we know, that gravity force is weak and it's not so easy to observe and measure it for small samples.
SwamiOnTheMountain
not rated yet Jan 11, 2018
Yeah they really glossed over the whole "negative mass" thing. haha.
Some would say that is as impossible as dividing by zero.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 11, 2018
If the space-time would be completely flat and empty, then yes. It would behave like flat water surface: every additional deform and undulation of it would increase its surface area and density. But the space-time isn't completely flat: the vacuum is filled by tiny fluctuations which give the space-time some nonzero intrinsic curvature and Universe is closed into itself. So we could imagine if we would smooth portion of space-time bellow this intrinsic curvature, we would get curvature lower than this intrinsic curvature, i.e. the negative one. Personally I don't think that negative mass particles can exist in their pure state even theoretically. But so-called warp field of mildly negative curvature where the light is spreading faster than through rest of vacuum? Why not - we already have some experimental evidence for it already. Such a volume area would behave like negative mass after then.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 11, 2018
There are theories, that at the proximity of massive bodies the space-time curvature gets also deformed slightly toward negative values with respect to free vacuum (Casimir field with excess of scalar waves and superluminal speed of light propagation). Therefore we may think that every massive body is surrounded by subtle and weak cloud of negative matter attached to it in similar way, like the galaxies are surrounded by clouds of dark matter. According to some experiments the space between magnets attached in repulsive arrangement also creates "scalar bubble" of "negative matter" between them, in which time runs faster for electromagnetic processes, which enables to drain an energy from them. The future will tell us, what is correct on these ideas and what not.
rrwillsj
not rated yet Jan 11, 2018
My suspicions (unverified) is that this research team is in a toxic environment of extreme competition for funding.

As they say in Show Business "Even bad publicity is better than NO publicity!"

I have worked in business and academic institutions, where the guy approving the funding? All too often turns out to be a sadistic bastard. Who did not really understand the research beneath his raptor wings. Or even care about the success or failure of a project. He will take all the credit for success. And never accept any share of blame for failures. That's what subordinates are for!

In the desperate struggle for recognition, researchers are grasping at straws to get a good count of eyeballs for their publications. Because, all too often that is how their superiors measure success.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 12, 2018
@rrwillsj: In general, the researchers who are able to publish their research in Nature journal generally belong into top quality of research so that they don't have to fight for grants in such a primitive way. If you would read the original article (which isn't so difficult, because it's not paywalled), you would read that concept of negative exciton mass was proposed earlier in another studies so that the present study is therefore more incremental and gradualist than it looks at the first sight.

The problem is, this dry information is passed and transformed by queue of people, who are both lazy / unqualified to read about historical background, both motivated in enhancing the sensationalist aspect of each report (PR department of University, journalists of PO) - so that end readers can get an impression, they're fooled again.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 12, 2018
From high level conceptual perspective the negative mass particles arise like byproduct of high density of these normal ones, i.e. like the holes or spaces between them. The similar situation occurs during heavy rain for example, once the spaces between droplets decrease up to level, they enable the formation of secondary rainbows with opposite order of colors. This high density can be achieved only during excitation of thin layers of semiconductors, because due to bad cooling the bulk material would evaporate well before it. So that in present study physicists smashed the monolayer of molybdenum disulphide (a layered material similar in graphene) inside the microwave resonator and what they observed were literally fast decaying bubbles inside the dense field of normal excitations.
milnik
not rated yet Jan 14, 2018
Negative mass creates negative and weird consciousness. First, I see that none of you are trying to get away from it: WHAT IS MATERIAL? What are the basic ingredients of matter, and the mass is a bunch of matter. Are well-paid fools know what a laser is and how it shares on matter and its constituents.
If the quark, as the basis of matter, is negative, what makes him a negative one? There is no negative matter in the universe, only it can be particles in which an electron is inserted into force (a neutron with an inserted electron, but it is not a stable particle). If you insert an electron into a proton, you get a neutron. Do you know what is happening in a neutron with an electron-positron pair?
milnik
not rated yet Jan 14, 2018
THE SCIENCE IS UNKNOWN. To understand this, I would not fool and pretend to know everything about what is magnetism, and in fact there are completely "hollow" brains. Are you interested in how matter arises and disappears, from what is formed and into what is being dissolved? It's not nature so stupid that it complicates the birth of a phenomenon, as the "scientists" see it. And what are the delusions? And that's the natural law !! Whoever does not want to accept the structure of the universe and who does not know and does not recognize the existence of the Spiritual Entity of the Universe (SEU), is spiritually blind and crazy in understanding it.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 14, 2018
Mater(ial) is the mixture of space-time gradients with various curvatures. Once the curvature of resulting mixture is positive, it's normal matter. Once it gets negative, it's negative or so called mirror matter. There is also symmetry of concept of gravitational charge in gravitomagnetism - negative matter would exhibit a negative gravity force, i.e. the gravity of the opposite charge. Negative quark would have opposite color charge i.e. the antiquark - but it still doesn't make it an negative matter quark. The fact that many connections in existing science aren't still obvious doesn't imply, it's necessary to raise off topic esoteric or even spiritualism - it will not make the things simpler and more transparent.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 14, 2018
In dense aether model the symmetry of negative/positive space-time curvature is represented by duality of scalar - longitudinal and transverse waves of vacuum. Every particle consist of alternating layers of mutually resonating longitudinal and transverse waves like onions and when the transverse waves dominate, we are talking about normal matter, which creates a cloud of transverse waves around itself - the cloud of virtual photons, known as a gravitational field. Negative matter would consist of excess of scalar waves and it would create a cloud of scalar waves around itself.

The antiparticles have the same effects like normal matter - they just have order of their layers reversed. Their net effect to space-time curvature is the same though - with exception of simplest antiparticles, which consist of one layer of scalar waves only. Such a particles would also behave like negative matter at the same moment (dark matter particles would balance the missing antimatter).
milnik
1 / 5 (1) Jan 14, 2018
@mackita,
I thought you were trying to figure it out and that you really understood what matter, time and space were. Einstein gave you all the pill for "the curvature of the time an adversary) and therefore you have a completely curved understanding of everything that is" clear to you ".
Accept free AETHER pill, and there is only one enough, and it will be clear to you that you have been trembling to this day. How do you not understand that Aether is a fixed substance with electromagnetic properties and that light can not move without Aether, because light also has electromagnetic properties. These are "relatives" such as Aether cousin with gluons (magnetism) and with quarks, electrons, positrons (gravity). Organize a seminar to direct the entire science to the right path, because you have gone astray into some "dark" spaces.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 15, 2018
@Milnik: Please see my comment here. Being an aetherist unfortunately doesn't imply, you know facts or you can think logically about physics - some knowledge and IQ is still required there. With compare to quantum mechanics or relativity the aether concept is nothing which someone must accept like a new form of religion - but to understand, why it's relevant to reality around us. Once you cannot understand/explain it in logical way, then it has no meaning for you to consider it - otherwise you will just replace one religion by another one. In my experience the twaddling about aether without explanation only makes people upset, because they cannot understand nothing new anyway and you're doing disservice to this concept in its very consequences.
milnik
not rated yet Jan 15, 2018
@mackita,
I see that you are worse than a carpenter, who does not believe in anything, only in something that is so ordered to him. You have realized that I'm turning Eether into a religion. That means you do not know what religion is and what is Aether, how will you know when you are not connected, consciously or intuitively with the Spiritual entity of the universe. What you think I do not have evidence, you are mistaken, and you do not know that my country and my country were robbed and destroyed by types that do not believe in anything, but only in fatamorganes. ETHER is what you call "dark", only it is neither matter nor energy, but substance at the border of matter and spiritual entity.
milnik
1 / 5 (1) Jan 15, 2018
Because of the idiots who have filled the science of Aether with the whole universe, and those idiots look at themselves, and if someone wants to make something useful, they ask for it to pay for it. I do not have the money because, but I have enough paper to leave it all out for some time, when tycoon idiots will disappear and honest people will see that value.
And something else, to educate you: I establish a connection with Aether using a small magnet and a copper wire spool and I get electricity from whatever you call it.
It does not need any movement, no wire or magnet. I can understand what AETHER is, and he has understood who I am, but one day you will understand it, when you throw out quantum mechanics, Einstein's and Lorenz's nonsense from the head, and those around BB.
ellbeeyoo
1 / 5 (1) Jan 15, 2018
@mackita
The EM drive does not work by creating 'negative mass'. It supposedly uses another method that is equally forbidden by physics. NASA has NOT said that it works. Some people in the business claims that it works on a scale in micronewtons and to scale it up to a useful quantity would also be impossible. If NASA though that the thing worked we would be hearing about it every day, yet we hard a few releases and then nothing. It has not been proven to work and if it does work it cannot be scaled up to useful quantities of energy.
ellbeeyoo
not rated yet Jan 15, 2018
"Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence" was a phrase made popular by Carl Sagan and it applies here. Someone here who does know more than I do pointed out that they aren't talking about fermions, but some type of particle that behave AS IF it had negative mass. I have to point out that AS IF means it isn't negative mass, but has some characteristics that could be called negative mass-like. There is a great deal of difference between appearing as something and actually being something. They claim to achieve negative mass; the laws of physics say NO it just looks that way.
savvys84
not rated yet Jan 15, 2018
Lol negative mass?
This is gonna fizzle out for sure
antialias_physorg
not rated yet Jan 15, 2018
Lol negative mass?
This is gonna fizzle out for sure

You didn't really bother to read the article, did you?
Bongstar420
not rated yet Jan 15, 2018
Are we sure the best thing we can think up for this is laser guns and inertial stabilizers?
mackita
not rated yet Jan 15, 2018
@Bongstar: Yes, the human population has to be stabilized....
Osiris1
not rated yet Jan 15, 2018
Great science. Let the idiot naysayers rave as that is what they do best..... like heathens. Negative mass is the key to negative energy as well. Easy to make lasers mean more tech yet. Negative energy means at least low intensity Alcubierre fields, which at first will not be warp drives per se, but could be very fast moving ships indeed in their own small bubble of sub warp inertial reference frame. Think trips to Proxima Centauri's planets in less than two years.... and back. Such a lure of a new home for man will gain followers.... such will literally come out of the woodwork. Man's journey to his birthright has begun.
savvys84
1 / 5 (2) Jan 16, 2018
Lol negative mass?
This is gonna fizzle out for sure

You didn't really bother to read the article, did you?

Says who?
And I already have an anti gravity device.
chk out https://www.scrib...savvys84
mackita
not rated yet Jan 16, 2018
@Sawys: This is unique and sorta hilariously cute research (1, 2). The people in developing countries have big potential for citizen science...
mackita
not rated yet Jan 16, 2018
BTW It resembles the experiments of Russian astronomer Nikolay Kozyrev for me. He was also fond of antigravity, negative time, energy and matter. He considered the entropic gravity concept very consequentially...
For example he believed (and allegedly demonstrated), that entropic processes (such as evaporation of acetone) emit "time" and repel massive bodies at distance....
milnik
1 / 5 (1) Jan 16, 2018
Only a maniac can claim and know what anti-gravity is, if it does not know what gravity is. Suluda is also a claim with the light of the bends when passing by the heavens with great gravity. It means they do not even know what light is, and especially what gravity is. If we can overcome the gravitational force by some other force, that does not mean that we have found antigravity.
When people understand and study the causes of the motion of the material particles, and also the celestial bodies, then the intelligentsia will be the mutual effect of magnetism and gravity through AETHER. Many arouse the story of Aether, but let it be so, because they will get used to like gravity, although they do not know what it is and how it arises.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 16, 2018
Gravity is the result of shielding of longitudinal waves of vacuum by massive bodies, resulting into an excess of virtual bosons around them. The excess of virtual bosons (photons, gluons and Higgs bosons) slows down the propagation of transverse waves, thus dilating time. The antigravity will be therefore the opposite - the relative excess of longitudinal waves around these bodies. Scalar field makes vacuum hot and it speed-up the energy transfer, thus contracting time. The consequences are explained above: the negative matter will be unstable and radiative (white hole), it will decay fast into so-called scalar bubble or warp field. The quasars and jets of black holes may serve as an illustration of how the decay of negative matter would look like. The negative matter would be quite transparent for photons, it would absorb and reflect scalar waves instead like the electrons within superconductors.
mackita
not rated yet Jan 16, 2018
The negative aspect of matter is scale dependent. If we would use special glasses which would pass only light (electromagnetic waves) of particular frequency, then we would see sharply only the objects, the size of which would correspond the wavelength of EM waves, for which our glasses would be transparent. We would see, that all objects larger than wavelength of microwave background (i.e. normal macroscopic objects larger than ~ 2 mm) behave like normal gravitating matter and they tend to coalesce into larger bodies. But the objects smaller would be increasingly transparent and we would see, that they tend to expand into infinity the more, the more finely they're divided due to quantum fluctuations of vacuum and zero point energy which pushes them apart. It means the atoms and molecules of gas at free space are behaving pretty much like the negative matter in many aspects. For most lightweight particles (dark matter) the appearance of negative matter would be nearly complete.
savvys84
not rated yet Jan 17, 2018
@mackita

Thanks for all your comments. and since there is a paucity of comments, would welcome you to comment on youtube https://www.youtu...g68VE-Ys

Lol I would be a us citizen in God's eyes since I became a Born Again Christian there
milnik
not rated yet Jan 17, 2018
@mackita,
I will try to analyze everything that has been said about Sage theory, although I also see that none of this explanation is in line with nature. If there are so many participants in the solution to the problem of gravity, and there is no solution, what does that mean for conscious people?
You mention transversal waves, and who formed them and through which substance can they move? You say it is not clear. You say that virtual bosons: photons, gluons, Hi gz particles and to shorten the time, and some scalar field and space heating. These are all nebuloses. It comes out as if there is a new entity of the universe and your listed "guests" come as strangers and uninvited tourists to interfere with the work of these waves. What is a virtual part for you?
milnik
not rated yet Jan 17, 2018
Who formed it? In the science there are so many false and fictitious phenomena that poor gravity will escape from the universe, and we will not know why it was present in the universe. I'm more and more convinced that I'm right, because you have countless Fatamorgana.
Imagine that the Spiritual entity of the universe is watching you, and it is not easy for him to appear those who formed him, nor do they know him or acknowledge him.
milnik
1 / 5 (1) Jan 17, 2018
It's time to accept my evidence, because all the previous theories fall into the water, and everything is so simple for me, so those who are accustomed to complicated formulas, false models, wrong theories, are hard to get used to the simplicity that nature has determined. Only those who do not know the cause of the phenomenon have more evidence. But, remember, there is only one truth about the cause of the phenomenon, and the false ones have as many as there are those who want to get rich from lies, at the expense of nature and those who speak the truth. WONDERFUL: GLUON IS A VIRTUAL PARTICLE. If there is no gluon, there would be no magnetism. !!!
mackita
not rated yet Jan 17, 2018
If there is no gluon, there would be no magnetism
Electrons contain no gluons, yet they're involved in magnetism.
Gluon is virtual particle
OK, but what that would imply? Why we should remember it?
milnik
not rated yet Jan 17, 2018
@mackita,
and electron and positron and gluons are formed by Aether, but in a series of thermodynamic processes, in the presence of the base-AETHER, quarks, gluons, especially chemical elements, gases, clouds of gases, masses, celestial bodies (magnetists, double-pulsars, neutron stars), and when they explode as supernovae, the stars form like the sun and with them the planet and other mass graves. These contaminating stories of the expansion of the universe, the galaxies, and the Hubble constant do not correspond to the universe. And galaxies have their center of gravity around which they move, but science does not see that Kepler's laws need to be corrected, because the true path of heavenly bodies does not appear from it. I corrected those laws and came to understand what spin, photon, wave, and much more.

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