NASA research reveals Europa's mystery dark material could be sea salt

NASA research reveals Europa's mystery dark material could be sea salt
The puzzling, fascinating surface of Jupiter's icy moon Europa looms large in this reprocessed color view, made from images taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft in the late 1990s. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SETI Institute

NASA laboratory experiments suggest the dark material coating some geological features of Jupiter's moon Europa is likely sea salt from a subsurface ocean, discolored by exposure to radiation. The presence of sea salt on Europa's surface suggests the ocean is interacting with its rocky seafloor—an important consideration in determining whether the icy moon could support life.

The study is accepted for publication in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

"We have many questions about Europa, the most important and most difficult to answer being is there life? Research like this is important because it focuses on questions we can definitively answer, like whether or not Europa is inhabitable," said Curt Niebur, Outer Planets Program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "Once we have those answers, we can tackle the bigger question about life in the ocean beneath Europa's ice shell."

For more than a decade, scientists have wondered about the nature of the dark material that coats long, linear fractures and other relatively young on Europa's surface. Its association with young terrains suggests the material has erupted from within Europa, but with limited data available, the material's chemical composition has remained elusive.

"If it's just salt from the ocean below, that would be a simple and elegant solution for what the dark, mysterious material is," said research lead Kevin Hand, a planetary scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

NASA research reveals Europa's mystery dark material could be sea salt
A salt sample inside a JPL test chamber is bathed in an eerie blue glow as an electron beam scans across it many times each second, delivering a powerful dose of radiation. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

One certainty is that Europa is bathed in radiation created by Jupiter's powerful magnetic field. Electrons and ions slam into the moon's surface with the intensity of a particle accelerator. Theories proposed to explain the nature of the dark material include this radiation as a likely part of the process that creates it.

Previous studies using data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, and various telescopes, attributed the discolorations on Europa's surface to compounds containing sulfur and magnesium. While radiation-processed sulfur accounts for some of the colors on Europa, the new experiments reveal that irradiated salts could explain the color within the youngest regions of the moon's surface.

To identify the dark material, Hand and his co-author Robert Carlson, also at JPL, created a simulated patch of Europa's surface in a laboratory test apparatus for testing possible candidate substances. For each material, they collected spectra—which are like chemical fingerprints—encoded in the light reflected by the compounds.

"We call it our 'Europa in a can,'" Hand said. "The lab setup mimics conditions on Europa's surface in terms of temperature, pressure and . The spectra of these materials can then be compared to those collected by spacecraft and telescopes."

For this particular research, the scientists tested samples of common salt—sodium chloride—along with mixtures of salt and water, in their vacuum chamber at Europa's chilly surface temperature of minus 280 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 173 Celsius). They then bombarded the salty samples with an electron beam to simulate the intense radiation on the moon's surface.

NASA research reveals Europa's mystery dark material could be sea salt
After tens of hours of exposure to Europa-like conditions, sodium chloride samples turned a yellowish-brown color. The color is spectrally similar to that of dark features on Europa imaged by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

After a few tens of hours of exposure to this harsh environment, which corresponds to as long as a century on Europa, the salt samples, which were initially white just like table salt, turned a yellowish-brown color similar to features on the icy moon. The researchers found the color of these samples, as measured in their spectra, showed a strong resemblance to the color within fractures on Europa that were imaged by NASA's Galileo mission.

"This work tells us the chemical signature of radiation-baked sodium chloride is a compelling match to spacecraft data for Europa's mystery material," Hand said.

NASA research reveals Europa's mystery dark material could be sea salt
A salt sample, baked to a brownish color by radiation, after exposure to Europa-like conditions. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Additionally, the longer the samples were exposed to radiation, the darker the resulting color. Hand thinks scientists could use this type of color variation to help determine the ages of geologic features and material ejected from any plumes that might exist on Europa.

Previous telescope observations have shown tantalizing hints of the spectral features seen by the researchers in their irradiated salts. But no telescope on or near Earth can observe Europa with sufficiently high resolving power to identify the features with certainty. The researchers suggest this could be accomplished by future observations with a spacecraft visiting Europa.

NASA research reveals Europa's mystery dark material could be sea salt
A close-up of salt grains discolored by radiation following exposure in a "Europa-in-a-can" test setup at JPL. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Explore further

NASA issues 'remastered' view of Jupiter's moon Europa

More information: For more information about Europa, visit: europa.jpl.nasa.gov
Journal information: Geophysical Research Letters

Citation: NASA research reveals Europa's mystery dark material could be sea salt (2015, May 13) retrieved 16 October 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-05-nasa-reveals-europa-mystery-dark.html
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May 13, 2015
Was the coloration from the electron beam or the X-rays generated when they hit the metal holding the sample?

When I was a beam tech for 0.5 to 3.0 MeV electron Beam Generators, we would color or darken our safety glasses with the beams and their byproduct effects, "smoking" the lenses in a neutral gray. The air would glow blue, and the sides of the lenses would be incandescent.

I would be interested in the acceleration potential used in this experiment.

May 13, 2015
The reason I wondered about the X-rays is because in our beam cells, one did not necessarily have to put stuff under the beam to get it "smoked", grayed, or discolored, but could be several feet away over a longer period, indicating it was from the X-rays created by the beam hitting the metal structures, and not the electron beam itself.

May 14, 2015
The reason I wondered about the X-rays is because in our beam cells, one did not necessarily have to put stuff under the beam to get it "smoked", grayed, or discolored, but could be several feet away over a longer period, indicating it was from the X-rays created by the beam hitting the metal structures, and not the electron beam itself.
Nah this is just a trumped-up excuse for why you needed to talk about yourself yet again.

How pathetic. How sick.

May 14, 2015
Wiki warriors do not always know how to look up phenomena in Wiki, so they resort to personal attacks on those with the knowledge and experience.

What is your experience with electron beams, otto? Want to have a technical debate?

I propose it was the X-rays which colored the glass. What do you think it was? Paint?

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