Study undercuts idea that 'medieval warm period' was global

December 4, 2015
Glaciers usually advance during cold times and recede during warm ones. These two in western Greenland are now retreating from where they may have been when the Vikings arrived. Credit: Jason Briner

A new study questions the popular notion that 10th-century Norse people were able to colonize Greenland because of a period of unusually warm weather. Based upon signs left by old glaciers, researchers say the climate was already cold when the Norse arrived—and that climate thus probably played little role in their mysterious demise some 400 years later. On a larger scale, the study adds to building evidence that the so-called Medieval Warm Period, when Europe enjoyed exceptionally clement weather, did not necessarily extend to other parts of the world.

"It's becoming clearer that the Medieval Warm Period was patchy, not global," said lead author Nicolás Young, a glacial geologist at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. "The concept is Eurocentric—that's where the best-known observations were made. Elsewhere, the might not have been the same." Climate scientists have cited the Medieval Warm Period to explain anomalies in rainfall and temperature in far-flung regions, from the U.S. Southwest to China. The study appears today in the journal Science Advances.

Norse, or Vikings, led by Erik the Red, first sailed from recently settled Iceland to southwestern Greenland around 985, according to Icelandic records. Some 3,000 to 5,000 settlers eventually lived in Greenland, harvesting walrus ivory and raising livestock. But the colonies disappeared between about 1360 and 1460, leaving only ruins, and a longstanding mystery as to what happened. The native Inuit remained, but Europeans did not re-inhabit Greenland until the 1700s.

The Greenlandic Vikings' apogee coincided with the Medieval Warm Period (also known as the Medieval Climate Anomaly), generally dated from about 950-1250; their disappearance followed the onset of the Little Ice Age, which ran from about 1300-1850. Both periods are firmly documented in European and Icelandic historical records. Thus, popular authors and some scientists have fixed on the idea that nice weather drew the settlers to Greenland, and bad weather froze and starved them. But there are no early historical climate records from Greenland. Recently, historians have proposed more complex factors in addition to, or instead of, climate: hostilities with the Inuit, a decline in ivory trade, soil erosion caused by the Vikings' imported cattle, or a migration back to Europe to farms depopulated by the Black Plague.

In western Greenland, small outlet glaciers are wasting backward, leaving behind piles of rocks, or moraines, that mark their previous advances. Meltwater has formed a lake. Credit: Jason Briner

In the new study, the scientists sampled boulders left by advancing glaciers over the last 1,000-some years in southwest Greenland, and on neighboring Baffin Island, which the Norse may also have occupied, according to newly uncovered evidence. Glacial advances during the Little Ice Age have wiped out most evidence of where the glaciers were during the Norse settlement. But Young and his colleagues were able to find traces of a few moraines—heaps of debris left at glaciers' ends—that, by their layout, they could tell predated the Little Ice Age advances. Using newly precise methods of analyzing chemical isotopes in the rocks, they showed that these moraines had been deposited during the Viking occupation, and that the glaciers had neared or reached their later maximum Little Ice Age positions between 975 and 1275. The strong implication: it was at least as cold when the Vikings arrived as when they left. "If the Vikings traveled to Greenland when it was cool, it's a stretch to say deteriorating climate drove them out," said Young.

The findings fit with other recently developed evidence that the effects of the Medieval Warm Period were not uniform; some places, including parts of central Eurasia and northwestern North America, may actually have cooled off.

In the Atlantic region, the research includes a 2013 study of ocean-bottom sediments suggesting that temperatures in the western North Atlantic actually went down as the eastern North Atlantic warmed. Other studies of the region suggest a more complex picture. A 2011 study of a core from the Greenland ice sheet shows a strong cooling at the start of Norse occupation, and another in the middle, with interspersed warming. On the other hand, lake-bottom sediments from southwestern Greenland studied in 2011 by Lamont-Doherty paleoclimatologist William D'Andrea, suggest it might indeed have been warm when the Norse arrived, but that climate cooled starting in 1160, well before the Little Ice Age.

The new study may feed recent suggestions by other researchers that the Medieval Warm Period was in part just an extended phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Modern observations show that the NAO is a generally decadal-scale climate cycle, in which warm winds from the west strengthen and boost temperatures in Europe and Iceland, but simultaneously make southwest Greenland and Baffin Island colder, by sucking in more Arctic air. That makes the two regions seesaw in opposite directions.

Study undercuts idea that 'medieval warm period' was global
In Baffin Island's Naqsaq Valley, University at Buffalo geologist Jason Briner samples a boulder left by a glacier around the time of early Viking settlement. Measurements of chemical isotopes within the rock suggest settlers in neighboring Greenland faced cold weather. Credit: Nicolás Young

Gifford Miller, a paleoclimatologist at the University of Colorado, called the paper "a coup de grace on the Medieval Warm Period." Miller said it shows "with great clarity of evidence" that "the idea of a consistently warm Medieval period is certainly an oversimplification and of little utility."

Astrid Ogilvie, a climate historian currently based at Iceland's Akureyri University, said the study "shows that the climate is clearly more complicated and variable than people earlier assumed." As for the Vikings, the climate story has been dimming for some time, she said. "I do not like the simplistic argument that the Greenland people went there when it was warm, and then 'it got cold and they died'," she said. "I think the Medieval Warm Period has been built on many false premises, but it still clings to the popular imagination."

The rocks were analyzed at the University of Buffalo, and at the Lamont-Doherty lab of geochemist and study coauthor Joerg Schaefer. The Lamont lab is among a handful that can precisely date such recent rock deposits. The analyses are done by measuring buildups of small amounts of Beryllium 10, an isotope created when cosmogenic rays strike rock surfaces newly exposed by melting ice.

Explore further: Nordic seas cooled 500,000 years before global oceans

More information: "Glacier maxima in Baffin Bay during the Medieval Warm Period coeval with Norse settlement," Science Advances, advances.sciencemag.org/content/1/11/e1500806

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HannesAlfven
2.8 / 5 (18) Dec 04, 2015
Climategate Email #1462:

cc: Eystein Jansen , Valerie Masson-Delmotte
date: Thu, 13 Jan 2005 21:45:38 -0700
from: Jonathan Overpeck
subject: the new "warm period myths" box
to: Keith Briffa , t.osborn@uea.ac.uk

[...]

In reading Valerie's Holocene section, I get the sense that I'm not the only one who would like to deal a mortal blow to the misuse of supposed warm period terms and myths in the literature. The sceptics and uninformed love to cite these periods as natural analogs for current warming too - pure rubbish.

[...]
jeffensley
2.7 / 5 (15) Dec 04, 2015
That just begs to question, how well do we actually know past global temperatures, period? It's hard enough to come up with a modern number despite having recordings everywhere. Perhaps we shouldn't be comparing to past data at all and simply admit we can make a detailed, short-term trend in modern times and everything before is just a muddled generalities.
Bongstar420
2.7 / 5 (14) Dec 04, 2015
They made me read a book in college that said they found evidence of frozen stuff which would only happen in case of sudden cold. I don't remember what it was. The author is one of the famous global warming types though. The settlers were resistant to eating fish btw. It was more about the classism of livestock.

This article demonstrates the lack of actual climate data though. Our current expectations are based on the last 50 years btw. A century does not equal "climate" very well at all
mikedalyllama
2.3 / 5 (6) Dec 04, 2015
Thank you ^
Dug
3.4 / 5 (10) Dec 04, 2015
I'll take the fossil spruce forest in Greenland dated to Medieval Warm Period over "advanced rock" dating. It's a far broader and better founded study. "GLACIAL GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE FOR THE MEDIEVAL WARM PERIOD JEAN M. GROVE Girton College, Cambridge, U.K. and ROY SWITSUR Wolfson College, Cambridge, U.K.
Climate Change, March 1994
howhot2
3.4 / 5 (17) Dec 04, 2015
From the article, the story is ""a coup de grace on the Medieval Warm Period.". So many climate change deniers say they can't wait to grow grapes in Greenland. Ahh those craze wingnut republican sickos that want to bring on global warming just to prove they have more cojones than the typical man does. When they get to 6, you know they must feel right up there with the big cojone guys.

I'm poking fun. It was a good article.
jjgeibel
2.4 / 5 (14) Dec 04, 2015

Somewhere around 1000 or so climatic factors ended the southwestern north American cliff dwellers and and a bit later the Inca civilization was wiped out by long term droughts. There was a little ice age following the warm period and the few Sierra Nevada glaciers are remnants of the time. And a trip up into the White Mts. of Eastern Calif. and Western Nevada will show you dead bristle cone pines above current living trees. They were killed by the cooling climate. So even if there were no medieval warm period there was a world wide little ice age.
Vietvet
3.8 / 5 (16) Dec 04, 2015
@jjgeibel

Your narrative is simplistic and lacking references. The fall of the Inca empire began with the Spanish invasion, no droughts need. The evidence for a "worldwide" little ice age is weak at best.

https://en.wikipe...a_Empire
http://www.meteo....eage.pdf
Omnishambles
2.9 / 5 (15) Dec 05, 2015
How about explaining the graves and other excavations that the Norse dug into what is now permafrost (just read Jared Diamond's Collapse). Alarmists fear the Medieval Warm Period and want it extinguished, despite solid historical and archeological evidence. Good grief.

BTW...since when does "did not necessarily" become scientific proof. Noble cause corruption methinks.
runrig
3.7 / 5 (12) Dec 05, 2015
BTW...since when does "did not necessarily" become scientific proof. Noble cause corruption methinks.


Never.

despite solid historical and archeological evidence. Good grief.


Good grief indeed ... so that's "scientific proof" ?

It is always what deniers lack "scientific proof" is ALL that matters.

Go find some.
Some that gives evidence of global temp change that are SYNCHRONOUS.
That can only be that and not cultural/social/disease/conflict driven.

Then come up with causation physics which does not involve "natural variation" where heat is spirited into the atmosphere for centuries by some mysterious magical process.
And NO it's not the Sun.
antigoracle
2.6 / 5 (18) Dec 05, 2015
I now find myself looking forward to the next AGW Cult "science" paper, for the pure amusement of their feeble attempts to support their dogma and the fodder it provides for the ignorant, hungry Chicken Littles. Is it any wonder that they willfully choose to stay blind to the truth, lest it ruins their faith. http://phys.org/n...ate.html
SamB
2.8 / 5 (18) Dec 05, 2015
It seems to be the new way of doing science. Somewhat like the FBI 'creating' terrorists, they seem to go looking for what ever scraps they can find to 'fabricate' evidence for their cause. Bad science. It is called "Asymmetric Attention."
Moltvic
3.2 / 5 (5) Dec 05, 2015
Graham Hancock seems the be the only one with a consistent timeline of data.
HannesAlfven
2.1 / 5 (15) Dec 05, 2015
Re: "Then come up with causation physics which does not involve "natural variation" where heat is spirited into the atmosphere for centuries by some mysterious magical process.
And NO it's not the Sun."

This might have been a fair statement some years ago ...

"The solar physicists cared just as much as the official climatologists, about keeping the world safe for their grandchildren. They said it was rash to suppose that every possible variation in the Sun's output of light had been seen by the satellites in the course of a single solar cycle. The solar-terrestrial physicists, for their part, pleaded for consideration of other ways in which the Sun might affect the Earth via the solar wind -- auroras, that sort of thing. They were awfully vague, though, about how it could happen."

- p18, The Manic Sun: Weather Theories Confounded, April 1997, Nigel Calder

But, even years ago, they knew it had something to do with the solar wind PLASMA. Not light.
HannesAlfven
2.1 / 5 (14) Dec 05, 2015
If all they did was follow the surprises, they'd find their extra energy source ... electric currents over the solar wind plasma, guided by the magnetic field, under certain conditions, into the poles ...

http://www.newsro...025.aspx

It's the same thing that Piers Corbyn has been saying for years now, and now the CTBTO and NASA are funding it.
runrig
4.3 / 5 (12) Dec 05, 2015
... electric currents over the solar wind plasma, guided by the magnetic field, under certain conditions, into the poles ...
It's the same thing that Piers Corbyn has been saying for years now, and now the CTBTO and NASA are funding it.

We know that energetic particles from the Sun are guided into the Earth's atmosphere at the poles.
What meteorologists do NOT see however is any change in the temp profile even in upper strat (~0.1mb) during these events. None.

I rather think that a temp rise of 100's of deg C would be evident in the Strat if it even made a scratch on observed ongoing GMT. With enormous knock on to climate due unbalanced heat input with sudden stratospheric warmings ( SSW's) regularly disrupting the Polar vortexes in winter. Not happening.
BTW Strat is currently at -85C at 30mb over the NP.
http://www.geo.fu...dex.html

Sorry: I have zero respect for Corbyn. Snake oil salesman.
Bongstar420
3.7 / 5 (3) Dec 05, 2015
From the article, the story is ""a coup de grace on the Medieval Warm Period.". So many climate change deniers say they can't wait to grow grapes in Greenland. Ahh those craze wingnut republican sickos that want to bring on global warming just to prove they have more cojones than the typical man does. When they get to 6, you know they must feel right up there with the big cojone guys.

I'm poking fun. It was a good article.


I can't wait to visit a space station in my personal space to land vehicle
Caliban
4.4 / 5 (7) Dec 05, 2015
I now find myself looking forward to the next AGW Cult "science" paper, for the pure amusement of their feeble attempts to support their dogma and the fodder it provides for the ignorant, hungry Chicken Littles. Is it any wonder that they willfully choose to stay blind to the truth, lest it ruins their faith. http://http://phys.org/n...ate.html]

Hahahahahahahahahahahhaha

auntie griselda shows up expecting chicken littles --but gets chicken gizzards, instead!

Just like with this article, also posted yesterday:

http://phys.org/n...ate.html

Allow me to paraphrase from a quote above:

"a coup de grace on the [Global] Medieval Warm Period." claimed by auntie gizzard.

It is a wonder that she chooses to stay willingly blind to the truth...at least until one considers the effects of senile dementia, galloping.
Maggnus
3.3 / 5 (14) Dec 05, 2015
How about explaining the graves and other excavations that the Norse dug into what is now permafrost (just read Jared Diamond's Collapse). Alarmists fear the Medieval Warm Period and want it extinguished, despite solid historical and archeological evidence. Good grief.

BTW...since when does "did not necessarily" become scientific proof. Noble cause corruption methinks.


As usual, a pile of un-cited allegations, sensationalism, and misunderstanding buffeted by deliberate ignorance of the studies. Denialist tripe from a contrarian denialist.
Maggnus
3.5 / 5 (11) Dec 05, 2015
If all they did was follow the surprises, they'd find their extra energy source ... electric currents over the solar wind plasma, guided by the magnetic field, under certain conditions, into the poles ...

http://www.newsro...025.aspx

It's the same thing that Piers Corbyn has been saying for years now, and now the CTBTO and NASA are funding it.

It's so cute when you cite articles but don't really understand what they are saying. No wonder you fall for that EU garbage.
Omnishambles
3 / 5 (10) Dec 05, 2015
Maggnus...can't you read? I cited Collapse, by Jared Diamond who in turn provides numerous references. Is name calling and offensive labelling all you're capable of doing?
Vietvet
3.3 / 5 (12) Dec 05, 2015
@Ominishambles

I'm going to but in here to point out why you've been down rated. It's your statement:
" Alarmists fear the Medieval Warm Period and want it extinguished".
DavidW
2.3 / 5 (15) Dec 05, 2015
Maggnus,

I find your comment, "that EU garbage" offensive too, in addition to the labeling above.
My girlfriend's daughter was sent a private jet and requested to attend MIT. MIT has never done that for anyone else as far as I know. She didn't even apply there. She has since graduated and moved on to helping life all over this planet using science for the right reason. The best the UN could do was invite her to speak, which she did. Go out for a run or do something fun. You know better.
DavidW
3 / 5 (14) Dec 05, 2015
How about explaining the graves and other excavations that the Norse dug into what is now permafrost (just read Jared Diamond's Collapse). Alarmists fear the Medieval Warm Period and want it extinguished, despite solid historical and archeological evidence. Good grief.

BTW...since when does "did not necessarily" become scientific proof. Noble cause corruption methinks.

Spot on I think too, minus the labeling of people blowing their horns. Sometimes the horn is a good warning.
antigoracle
2.4 / 5 (14) Dec 05, 2015
Caliban
3.5 / 5 (11) Dec 05, 2015
Maggnus,

I find your comment, "that EU garbage" offensive too, in addition to the labeling above.
My girlfriend's daughter was sent a private jet and requested to attend MIT. MIT has never done that for anyone else as far as I know. She didn't even apply there. She has since graduated and moved on to helping life all over this planet using science for the right reason. The best the UN could do was invite her to speak, which she did. Go out for a run or do something fun. You know better.


You've really gone out of bounds with this pathetic and desperate non-comment, Ddubya.

This kind of stupidiosity runs so deep in denierkind that it is virtually universal. However, Ddubya, you've still been out done in virtuosic stupidiosity by your fellow-traveller, aunti gizzard, who followed your entirely meaningless "comment" with this concisely decontextualized link, above:

http://wattsupwit...-period/

Shootist
2.2 / 5 (13) Dec 05, 2015
What about the Maunder Minimum? Was that global?

Remember bois and girls, "the polar bears will be fine". -- Freeman Dyson.

"I have strong views about climate because I think the majority is badly wrong, and you have to make sure if the majority is saying something that they're not talking nonsense." -- Freeman Dyson

And if Freeman Dyson says your science is nonsense, it probably is.
antigoracle
2.2 / 5 (13) Dec 05, 2015
@Ominishambles

I'm going to BUT IN here to point out why you've been down rated. It's your statement:
" Alarmists fear the Medieval Warm Period and want it extinguished".

No, you BUTT IN. Which, in your case, means it's what you are using when you attempt to post.
Now, stick to what you do best; vote the heretics 1. Which is 1 higher than your IQ.
EnricM
4.1 / 5 (7) Dec 06, 2015
The idea of a warm period being the cause for settlements in Greenland may not be wrong after all if we consider that a warm period in the continent may have led to a population explosion making that land were in such high demand that colonizing relatively inhospitable territories would have been a good option.

It would also make that the supply of food and fire wood from the continent or the British Isles would have been cheaper. If the goods produced in Greenland (walrus ivory for instance) reached good prices the Greenland colonies may have been economically sustainable with hte export.

Any change in the price of the exported goods or the price of food, etc, may have made rendered the colonies just unsustainable and these were either abandoned or they just starved to dead.

In any case this may have been as good a reason as a benign climate in Greenland to explain the settlements and their decline.
sdrfz
2.3 / 5 (9) Dec 06, 2015
Climategate Email #1462:

cc: Eystein Jansen , Valerie Masson-Delmotte
date: Thu, 13 Jan 2005 21:45:38 -0700
from: Jonathan Overpeck
subject: the new "warm period myths" box
to: Keith Briffa , t.osborn@uea.ac.uk

[...]

In reading Valerie's Holocene section, I get the sense that I'm not the only one who would like to deal a mortal blow to the misuse of supposed warm period terms and myths in the literature. The sceptics and uninformed love to cite these periods as natural analogs for current warming too - pure rubbish.

[...]


Are these so-called scientists going looking for evidence that supports their pre-conceived notions of what the science should be? That wouldn't be very scientific.
Maggnus
3.5 / 5 (11) Dec 06, 2015
Maggnus...can't you read? I cited Collapse, by Jared Diamond who in turn provides numerous references. Is name calling and offensive labelling all you're capable of doing?

OMG you mean that alluding to a book written by someone who provides references is a cite!?! Well holy cow, no wonder DavidW thinks he can pander his vacuous religious tripe on a science site - he has a book that has references!

Ever considered the meaning of hypocrisy denier? Does calling you out make me one of those "alarmists" you seem to disdain?

I label stupidity and outright lies. Tell us, which of those are you more guilty of? Diamond spends the last chapters of his book discussing how we are globally in danger of suffering a similar fate to some of the civilizations he talks about, due to man made climate change. Try reading the book.
Maggnus
3.7 / 5 (9) Dec 06, 2015
Maggnus,

I find your comment, "that EU garbage" offensive too, in addition to the labeling above.
My girlfriend's daughter was sent a private jet and requested to attend MIT. MIT has never done that for anyone else as far as I know. She didn't even apply there. She has since graduated and moved on to helping life all over this planet using science for the right reason. The best the UN could do was invite her to speak, which she did. Go out for a run or do something fun. You know better.

No one asked you, and I frankly could not care less what you think about me - or anything. You are just a blowhard and a braggart. Should look to your book for what your God thinks of such.
Maggnus
4.2 / 5 (9) Dec 06, 2015
..snip..If the goods produced in Greenland (walrus ivory for instance) reached good prices the Greenland colonies may have been economically sustainable with hte export.

Any change in the price of the exported goods or the price of food, etc, may have made rendered the colonies just unsustainable and these were either abandoned or they just starved to dead.


Yes, and combine this with the religious taboo on interacting with the "heathen" Innuit and the desire to maintain their dependence on animals not suited for the environment they were in (cattle mostly), and you spell doom for the colonists. Climate played a role, but it was only one of several players.
my2cts
3.9 / 5 (14) Dec 06, 2015

And if Freeman Dyson says your science is nonsense, it probably is.

Either that or he is wrong.
SuperThunder
3 / 5 (8) Dec 06, 2015
10th-century Norse people were able to colonize Greenland because of a period of unusually warm weather.

Seasonal Conquest Disorder.
antigoracle
2.1 / 5 (11) Dec 06, 2015
antigoracle
2.2 / 5 (10) Dec 06, 2015
leetennant
3.2 / 5 (9) Dec 06, 2015
Study confirms something we already knew. Thanks,study
HannesAlfven
2.1 / 5 (7) Dec 06, 2015
Re: "What meteorologists do NOT see however is any change in the temp profile even in upper strat (~0.1mb) during these events. None."

Not so sure about that ...

Sunspot #1632
March 20, 2013
CME generated SSW of 60 deg C
Highest recorded Greenland pressure system

Summary of event here ...

https://plus.goog...63662050
Osiris1
3.5 / 5 (2) Dec 07, 2015
Ok whether it was cold or not, those original settlers the Norse may well have been wanted men in Europe so had to run......somewhere. Somewhere on an island far far away for Kluke Snow Walker and his merry thugs. After all those men were the lead pirates of his age, and if what happened to pirates in the 1700's was any guide, a lot of them when caught had wallets made out of their skin, etc. My family did geneaology and had some ship captains among the ancestors in the 1600's and 1700's...the age of 'enlightenment', haw haw haw. Anyway one left a letter to his wife among his stuff and such was handed down to the kids, etc. The letter mentioned a wallet as having been made of the skin of a pirate that was caught and executed by privateers in 'the King's Service' (France). So treatment of pirates and raiders when caught was not nice. Lots of pirates headed for the exits when the going got tough then as later.
runrig
4.4 / 5 (7) Dec 07, 2015
Hannes
Sorry - this shows different.
It's normal within the Strat for temp variations of such magnitude. The SSW that winter actually took place in Jan (see temp spike).

http://acdb-ext.g...erra.pdf

This animation shows the (forecast of) the SSW. (scroll to anim gif)
http://newxsfc.bl...ric.html

Notice the PV splits as a warm rising wave of Trop air is kicked into the Strat by the Tibetan plateau and is fed into the circulation, down-welling and warming further via compression.
At 10mb it shows variation of ~100C within the circulation.

I can find no record of your event but would expect it to be the normal final warming of the season.
NB: this is solar induced (but not CME) - the Sun shines on the Strat over the NP before the equinox and warming takes place due O3 impacted by UV.
antigoracle
1.8 / 5 (10) Dec 07, 2015
Absolutely none of the links work in that previous post, yet the Chicken Little morons vote it 5s.
antigoracle
2.1 / 5 (11) Dec 07, 2015
And, look at that, the forum's DEGENERATE TROLL, vietfart, down votes my previous post.
howhot2
4.5 / 5 (8) Dec 07, 2015
Hay AGW Deniers and the rightwing trolls; you need to read this quickly

https://www.washi...ory.html

If Exxon believes in AGW, they why don't you?
DavidW
2 / 5 (8) Dec 07, 2015


I label stupidity and outright lies. k.


With more lies. Why then. For what cause? If it wasn't so sad it would be entertaining to see you try and answer that truthfully.

Go ahead.... Please explain the the foundation of the purpose that drives you to post here.

At this point, you either must admit that life is most important in life, and thus your criticism of what I speak as wrong, or you can lie using life or ???

I'm still sitting saying this stuff and so far, that one has trumped every mind that has commented here so far to argue with. Think for yourself. I mean you no harm or bad will, but please answer to the best of your ability if you have even one cell in your body not filled with cowardice. Think about it, then run it through your heart. Whatever is there is yours.
Caliban
3.7 / 5 (3) Dec 08, 2015


I label stupidity and outright lies. k.


With more lies. Why then. For what cause? If it wasn't so sad it would be entertaining to see you try and answer that truthfully.

Go ahead.... Please explain the the foundation of the purpose that drives you to post here.

At this point, you either must admit that life is most important in life, and thus your criticism of what I speak as wrong, or you can lie using life or ???

I'm still sitting saying this stuff and so far, that one has trumped every mind that has commented here so far to argue with. Think for yourself. I mean you no harm or bad will, but please answer to the best of your ability if you have even one cell in your body not filled with cowardice. Think about it, then run it through your heart. Whatever is there is yours.


What in the name of hell is this gibberish, ddubya?
runrig
5 / 5 (4) Dec 08, 2015
Dimis P
1 / 5 (1) Jan 05, 2016
there was a climate variabilty in 10th century comparable to today's. it is all documented in here. new insights on climate, solar wind, sunspot cycles, solar activity etc lot of new findings documented under Poulos, D. @ wix, academia.edu, researchgate etc

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