Honey bees rapidly evolve to overcome new disease

August 19, 2015 by Laura Petersen
Honey bees at OIST's observation hive. Credit: OIST

An international research team has some good news for the struggling honeybee, and the millions of people who depend on them to pollinate crops and other plants.

These valuable pollinators have faced widespread colony losses over the past decade, largely due to the spread of a predatory mite called Varroa destructor. But the might not be in as dire a state as it seems, according to research recently published in Nature Communications.

Researchers found a of from around Ithaca, New York, which is as strong today as ever, despite the mites invading the region in the mid-1990s.

"They took a hit, but they recovered," said Alexander Mikheyev, a professor at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) in Japan and lead paper author. "The population appears to have developed genetic resistance."

Mikheyev and his collaborators at OIST and Cornell University studied the population genetics of the wild colony by comparing the DNA of specimens collected in 1977 with bees collected from the same forest in 2010. To conduct the study, they developed a new DNA analysis tool that works especially well for degraded DNA stored in museum samples.

Researchers collected wild bees from the same forest in Ithaca, NY in 1977 and 2010, which allowed them to observe genome-wide changes over this time. The red arrow points to the bee nest in the tree. Credit: OIST

Such a study is extremely rare, especially with bees. Few people collect them, and even fewer collect in a way that is good enough for a population level study. Luckily, Cornell Professor Tom Seeley worked in this area during his Ph.D., and deposited his samples in the Cornell University Insect Collection. This is the first time scientists have been able to observe genome-wide changes after a specific event like the mite invasion.

"By using museum specimens, we see how evolution happens as compared to how we think it happens," said Mikheyev, who runs OIST's Ecology and Evolution Unit.

Many people think of evolution happening over thousands or millions of years, but in fact, it is happening from generation to generation. External forces cause certain traits to be selected and passed on to offspring to enhance their chance of survival and reproduction. By comparing bees from the same colony only a few decades a part, the team was able to see this natural selection in action.

The bees changed in several different ways.

First, mitochondrial DNA, the genetic material stored in cells" power plants, changed significantly from the older generation to the newer generation. That genetic material is only passed on from the mothers, so a major change indicates the old queen bees were wiped out and there were large-scale population losses. Even so, the population still maintained a high level of genetic diversity throughout the rest of genome, which is stored in the cell nucleus. Genetic diversity is the raw material for evolution, and high genetic diversity increases the chance for successful adaptation.

Museum bees (blue bars) are more closely related to modern bees from the same population (red bars), which is represented by the grey lines connecting the groups. A US domestic population (black bars) is more closely related to modern bees than museum specimens, which is represented by the orange lines connecting the three groups. This pattern confirms that modern bees experience gene flow from the wild bees in past, and from other domestic populations. Credit: OIST

One of the most interesting changes in the bee population was in a gene related to a dopamine receptor known to control aversion learning. Another study has suggested this receptor is involved with bees grooming themselves to get rid of the mites by chewing them up.

The researchers also found many changes in genes associated with development. Mites reproduce and feed on the bee during the bees" larval stage, so the researchers hypothesize that bees evolved to disrupt that process. Also, there were physical changes " today's bees are smaller than the older bees and their wing shape is different.

The researchers note changes observed cannot be prescribed to any one factor, such as the mites, because the timeframe is too long. However, many of the changes are too large to be due to random genetic fluctuations, or the introduction of genes from other sources, like Africanized bees, and found the strongest driver of the observed changes was still natural selection.

"These findings identify candidate genes that could be used for breeding more resistant bees, such as the dopamine receptor gene," Mikheyev said. "More importantly, it suggests the importance of maintaining high levels of in domestic bee stocks, which may help overcome future diseases."

Explore further: Best for bees to be stay-at-homes

More information: Museum samples reveal rapid evolution by wild honey bees exposed to a novel parasite, Nature Communications 6, Article number: 7991 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8991

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44 comments

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verkle
Aug 19, 2015
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Monkey Butt
3.9 / 5 (11) Aug 19, 2015
"Macroevolution is theory only, has never been observed, and is not real science."

LOL...nice try moron. Gravity is just a "theory" too. There is nothing higher than a "theory" in science, you idiot. If it's a theory, that means it's supported by all of the evidence so far. There is more evidence to support the theory of "macro"evolution than there is evidence for the theory of gravity. "Macro"evolution has been observed millions, if not billions of times. Every single fossil ever found, and every single piece of DNA evidence ever discovered supports the theory of "macro"evolution. Only complete dipsh!ts like you are forced to invent an arbitrary dividing line between the made-up terms "micro" and "macro" evolution. There is no such thing in reality. Do the world a favor, and don't breed. Thank you.
viko_mx
Aug 19, 2015
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Egleton
not rated yet Aug 19, 2015
I challenge the notion that the genome is the only repository of information. The purpose of the genes is to act as templates for amazing amino acid machines.
The morphology and behaviour must be stored elsewhere, in much the same way that we store culture in books or art.
Where would this information be stored? The finger of suspicion points firmly at the foundation of physics, where the only material is information. The Quantum field.
Would the power of evolution overlook QM? And why?
viko_mx
1.7 / 5 (6) Aug 19, 2015
I too think that the part of information needed for the living organisms are stored outside the genes and DNA. And the cells have infotrmational channels to receave this information from the divine niversal matrix controlled by Gods will. But this is not quantum field which mean nothing to me.
Da Schneib
5 / 5 (6) Aug 20, 2015
One of the advantages insects have is their short generations which mean they can evolve quickly as long as they have wide diversity. With insects that are as important to us as honeybees, this is a Good Thing.

This article implies that the Colony Collapse Disorder problem has been traced to a particular mite. If that's true, it's great news; honeybees, as a major pollinator of human food crops, are incredibly important to avoiding gigadeaths of humans. I'd like to see some more articles confirming that CCD is due to these mites.
Da Schneib
5 / 5 (5) Aug 20, 2015
So I did some research and it looks from not only the Wikipedia article but other good sources like the USDA and a few others that these mites have been shown to be a probable *partial* and what most journalists would call a "major" source of CCD, but there are other factors added to the mites, and even combined with the mites, that add to it including pesticides that are sub-lethal but that mess up the bees' metabolisms. But the bees evolving to clean themselves better and kill the mites is a good thing to see. I wouldn't even be too entirely sure that it's actually a genetic development. A bee colony might be as smart as a cat, collectively. I've certainly seen some pretty sophisticated strategies from ant colonies.
JVK
1.7 / 5 (6) Aug 20, 2015
http://www.ncbi.n...24693353 Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.

Excerpt: The honeybee already serves as a model organism for studying human immunity, disease resistance, allergic reaction, circadian rhythms, antibiotic resistance, the development of the brain and behavior, mental health, longevity, diseases of the X chromosome, learning and memory, as well as conditioned responses to sensory stimuli (Kohl, 2012).

The mammalian model (Diamond et al., 1996) detailed here allows what we have learned from the study of invertebrates (Elekonich & Roberts, 2005; Elekonich & Robinson, 2000) to be used in attempts to understand the development of human behavior and in attempts to understand human physical disease."

It may be comforting to think that honeybees and humans can evolve to meet the challenges posed by ecological variation, but no biologically-based experimental evidence suggests that is possible.
Da Schneib
5 / 5 (6) Aug 20, 2015
I am resisting the temptation to violate ignore list constraints and find out if there are "bee death deniers." I guess I wouldn't be surprised.
jsdarkdestruction
4.4 / 5 (7) Aug 20, 2015
I too think that the part of information needed for the living organisms are stored outside the genes and DNA. And the cells have infotrmational channels to receave this information from the divine niversal matrix controlled by Gods will. But this is not quantum field which mean nothing to me.

How do you know of this divine universal information matrix controlled by gods will? What evidence do you have for it?
Why wasn't it specifically mentioned in the bible or by Jesus at all?
chloe2013025
not rated yet Aug 20, 2015
I'm surprised about such interesting idea. Hope to see more improvements in the treatment of diseases.
rgw
5 / 5 (3) Aug 23, 2015
How many gods will do what?
JVK
1.7 / 5 (6) Aug 24, 2015
http://www.nature...991.html

Excerpt: "...these mites act as incubators and potent vectors for honey bee viruses, hence, they have fostered the spread of virulent strains of the bees' viruses6."

That fact links viruses from entropic elasticity to genomic entropy in the honeybee model organism when the accumulation of viral microRNAs is not prevented by the anti-entropic epigenetic effect of nutrient-dependent microRNAs, which link the pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation of honeybees from microbes to humans via the sequencing of the octopus genome.

See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. http://www.ncbi.n...24693353

See also: Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction http://www.scienc...14004006 They link insects to humans via citations to Elekonich and Robinson (2000) and Kohl (2013).
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (5) Aug 25, 2015
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
better still, anyone reading should also read "Criticisms of the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled evolutionary model" by Andrew Jones
http://www.socioa...ew/24367

for starters, Jones is actually educated in Biology, so knows WTF he is talking about while supplying validated information as refute
see also: http://phys.org/n...ete.html

in that thread, jk makes unsubstantiated conjectures based upon religious dogma and gets outed as a crackpot by ANON with just a few simple links, proving once and for all, that jk promotes PSEUDOSCIENCE and not actual validated science
(this is also seen on his personal rna-mediated PHISHING site or his perfume research)

all in all, you can either believe SCIENCE, or follow jk's religion (the one where he calls anyone who disagrees with him Terrorists- see thread link above)
JVK
1.7 / 5 (6) Aug 25, 2015
Re:
he calls anyone who disagrees with him Terrorists


I addressed the need for intelligent researchers to support the efforts of government agencies, which are attempting to defend people from terrorist threats. See: http://thedailysh...reg-bear Jon Stewart interviews Greg Bear

Ask yourself this: Who made SSgt James Stumpy (E-5, retired) a captain? What is his role in the hierarchy of terrorism. Is he merely a biologically uninformed science idiot, or is he plotting to kill us all, while telling others to ignore the facts about biophysically constrained protein folding?
gkam
3 / 5 (6) Aug 25, 2015
JVK, if you do not understand proper terms and the chain of command in the military, it is not a good idea to advertise it.
JVK
2 / 5 (4) Aug 25, 2015
If I did not understand the military chain of command after seven years in the USAF, having attained the rank of E-4 in 3 years, I would not ask about a retired E-5 who posts under the name: Captain Stumpy.

He's advertising the fact that he is a biologically uninformed science idiot, without telling us anything more about being raised by wolves for 10 years, his military service, or anything known to serious scientists about biologically-based cause and effect. But he claims I know nothing about it after 40 years as a medical laboratory scientist, which began with military training and a re-enlistment bonus in 1973 of $5600, which helped to fund my anti-terrorist activities during the past 4 decades.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (3) Aug 25, 2015
Who made SSgt James Stumpy (E-5, retired) a captain?
ROTFLMFAO
who ever said i was a military captain? i sure didn't, you moron!
I am a TRUCK CAPTAIN - RET from the KMC Fire Department (feel free to ask for confirmation)

this just goes to demonstrate, YET AGAIN, your problems and failures with reading and comprehension, as this has been discussed with you specifically several times

so what do you do?
you try to make an issue of it (called a red herring AND a strawman argument)
then you make ASSumption that i'm a terrorist because of said rank???

and YES, it does go to show you are ignorant of the COM in the military, because otherwise you would be able to comprehend there is a DIFFERENCE between military rank and Fire Department rank structures
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (4) Aug 25, 2015
is he plotting to kill us all
Lets examine this with logic and SCIENCE

TRUCK CAPTAIN STUMPY says-
follow the scientific method and the EVIDENCE
research everything, don't assume someone is correct- read the evidence/science
always ask for original sources
if it aint a reputable peer reviewed journal, it is pseudoscience, conjecture or religion
there is a reason for the constraints of the Scientific Method

JVK says (all this above- paraphrased for clarity)
creationists promote science
following his advice (or conjectures) is correct, otherwise you're a TERRORIST
there is evidence... but only if you're not educated, because it is verbal, not physical
the Lexicon/nomenclature of a field is irrelevant because you can make sh*t up and that's ok

TCS & ANON proved that jk is a liar, and you can see above that there is NO REPUTABLE valid evidence supporting jk's claims, only his insistence, so...

who ya gonna believe?

the evidence?

... or the liar?
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (4) Aug 25, 2015
seven years in the USAF
this makes you as much an expert in the military as your college experience makes you a graduate educated in biology
IOW- you're neither, and that is evidence in your posts and failure to "interpret" studies
he is a biologically uninformed science idiot
and yet, this idiot has proven that not only are you a pathological liar, but your reading & comprehension skills are negligible, you don't know anything about your chosen professional lexicon, and you've perpetually promoted religious beliefs over science, even when the evidence directly proves you an idiot. like this link: http://myxo.css.m...dex.html
without telling us anything more about
maybe because personal anecdote is not relevant?
i've proven, WITH LINKS to reputable science journals, AND with direct contact with said authors, that you're a pathological liar... and can't read
he claims I know nothing about it
NO
I PROVED IT...so did ANON
BIG DIFFERENCE
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.4 / 5 (7) Aug 25, 2015
I too think that the part of information needed for the living organisms are stored outside the genes and DNA. And the cells have infotrmational channels to receave this information from the divine niversal matrix controlled by Gods will. But this is not quantum field which mean nothing to me.

How do you know of this divine universal information matrix controlled by gods will? What evidence do you have for it?
Why wasn't it specifically mentioned in the bible or by Jesus at all?
This is something viko wrote all by hisself while god looked over his shoulder.

Personal gods allow you to make up any sorts of bullshit you want as long as it feels holy.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (4) Aug 25, 2015
40 years as
A LAB TECH
and you would think that SOME TIME in that 40 years, you would have read the dictionary that covers the basic terms for communication in your chosen field... but you didn't

you would also think that you would have learned that not all mutations are pathological (as proven here: http://myxo.css.m...dex.html ) given that this is VERY relevant to your field, and DIRECTLY relevant to your claims about mutations and Evolution... you would also think you would have learned the DIFFERENCE between neo-darwinism and the THEORY of Evolution (and why a Theory, in the scientific method, is not just a guess)
my anti-terrorist activities
you're not doing "anti-terrorism", you are a lab tech working with perfumes and making creationist religious comments on a science site

that is called PSEUDOSCIENCE

it is also considered terrorism by the DOJ

http://www.nij.go...ion.aspx
JVK
2 / 5 (4) Aug 25, 2015
you're not doing "anti-terrorism"


That's what terrorists claim. Why not claim that you are not a terrorist?

TRUCK CAPTAIN STUMPY says-follow the scientific method and the EVIDENCE
research everything, don't assume someone is correct- read the evidence/science always ask for original sources if it aint a reputable peer reviewed journal, it is pseudoscience...


"[W]hat Haldane, Fisher, Sewell Wright, Hardy, Weinberg et al. did was invent.... Evolution was defined as "changes in gene frequencies in natural populations." The accumulation of genetic mutations was touted to be enough to change one species to another.... Assumptions, made but not verified, were taught as fact." http://www.huffin...211.html

Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction http://www.ncbi.n...16290036

See also: http://www.socioa...ew/17338
JVK
2 / 5 (4) Aug 25, 2015
Captain Stumpy claims he lived with wolves for 10 years (or perhaps, that he was raised by them).
Greg Bear's "Qauntico" begins in Guatemala.

https://en.wikipe..._warfare "The urban guerrilla phenomenon is essentially one of industrialised society, resting both on the presence of large urban agglomerations where hideouts are easy to find and on a theory of alienation proper to the modern society of mass consumption."

Urban Guerrilla Warfare in Latin America James Kohl, John Litt https://books.goo...AAAAMAAJ

Peasant and revolution in Bolivia, April 9, 1952-August 2, 1953 Unknown Binding – 1978
by James V Kohl (Author) http://www.amazon...s+v+kohl

Review: The Latin American Revolution
Review by: James V. Kohl http://www.jstor.org/
JVK
2 / 5 (4) Aug 25, 2015
Re:
Why not claim that you are not a terrorist


That's what urban guerillas and terrorists claim. Is it likely that they want those who are combating evolution to be considered pseudoscientists?

See "Combating Evolution to Fight Disease" http://www.scienc...88.short
docile
Aug 25, 2015
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
JVK
2 / 5 (4) Aug 25, 2015
See also: http://dx.doi.org.../ncb3227
Excerpt: "The PLEKHA7-microprocessor complex co-precipitates with primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) and possesses pri-miRNA processing activity. PLEKHA7 regulates the levels of select miRNAs, in particular processing of miR-30b, to suppress expression of cell transforming markers promoted by the basolateral complex, including SNAI1, MYC and CCND1. Our work identifies a mechanism through which adhesion complexes regulate cellular behaviour and reveals their surprising association with the microprocessor."

See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems http://figshare.c...s/994281

"This ...model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance..."
JVK
2 / 5 (4) Aug 25, 2015
Re:
This doesn't mean, we should push the evolutionary model blindly to all cases of phylogeny.


There is no evolutionary model. There is only a model of ecological adaptation that links atoms to ecosystems via nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.

Minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans
http://dx.doi.org.../ng.2835
My notes: the whale lineage contains a total of 4,773 genes with unique amino acid changes (fixed in the four minke whales and two bottlenose dolphins), and 574 genes had minke whale–specific amino acid changes (fixed only in the four minke whales). Of the 4,773 genes, 695 encoded function-altering amino acid changes that were specific to the whale lineage (Supplementary Table 36). Single amino acid polymorphisms [amino acid substitutions] in the minke whale and bottlenose dolphin genes were compared with those in the cow and pig genes...
Vietvet
5 / 5 (3) Aug 25, 2015
Combating Evolution to Fight Disease

"Molecular biology and evolutionary biology have been separate disciplines and scientific cultures: The former is mechanistic and focused on molecules; the latter is theoretical and focused on populations. However, these domains are beginning to converge in laboratories addressing molecular mechanisms that explain how evolutionary processes work, and bring these processes to bear on medical problems such as cancer and infectious disease. Each discipline can be viewed as a missing link in the other's description of biology, and in medicine."
http://www.scienc...88.short

Molecular biologists and evolutionary theorists working together to "explain how evolutionary processes work"

This has been pointed out to JVK before but he keeps doubling down on his stupidity.
Vietvet
5 / 5 (3) Aug 25, 2015
"The shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event. Here we report the whole-genome sequencing and de novo assembly of the minke whale genome, as well as the whole-genome sequences of three minke whales, a fin whale, a bottlenose dolphin and a finless porpoise. Our comparative genomic analysis identified an expansion in the whale lineage of gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism, whereas gene families related to body hair and sensory receptors were contracted. Our analysis also identified whale-specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration."
http://www.nature...ng.2835.

"Whale- specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration."

Thanks JVK for linking to an example of beneficial genetic mutations.

Vietvet
5 / 5 (2) Aug 25, 2015
Urban Guerrilla Warfare in Latin America James Kohl, John Litt https://books.goo...AAAAMAAJ

Peasant and revolution in Bolivia, April 9, 1952-August 2, 1953 Unknown Binding – 1978
by James V Kohl (Author) http://www.amazon...s+v+kohl

Review: The Latin American Revolution
Review by: James V. Kohl http://www.jstor.org/

https://www.googl...A7c4U%3D

There is more than one James Kohl, claiming to be the author of the above links is hilarious.

JVK
2 / 5 (4) Aug 25, 2015
I didn't claim to be the author of the above links. Obviously, there is more than one James Kohl who is fighting against terrorism in the context of what Greg Bear has accurately portrayed about cell type differentiation in several different novels.

See also: http://www.rice.e...ry2.html

Excerpt: "In the last months of 1996, according to James Kohl (Bruce Willis), a lethal virus will wipe out 5 billion people."

It's interesting how the same name keeps coming up in different contexts that are all linked to prescient representations of biologically-based cause and effect that we included in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior http://www.hawaii...ion.html

I understand why they didn't use the name Greg Bear for the character played by Brad Pitt -- as the psychotic Jeffrey Goines. Greg Bear is prescient, not psychotic.
JVK
2 / 5 (4) Aug 25, 2015

"Whale- specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration."

Thanks JVK for linking to an example of beneficial genetic mutations.


Biologically uninformed science idiots who cannot grasp the difference between an amino acid substitution and a mutation after I detailed biologically-based cause and effect in the context of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions should stop making ridiculous comments and start to address the facts, or let serious scientists do that.

Anything else exemplifies Brad Pitt -- as the psychotic Jeffrey Goines, who should have been named Steven Taylor (aka Vietvet), or James Stumpy. All appear to be equally psychotic terrorists.
Vietvet
5 / 5 (5) Aug 25, 2015

"Whale- specific mutations in genes encoding antioxidants and enzymes controlling blood pressure and salt concentration."

Thanks JVK for linking to an example of beneficial genetic mutations.


Biologically uninformed science idiots

So now you are calling the authors of Minke whale genome and aquatic adaptation in cetaceans, a link you provided, "Biologically uninformed science idiots".

You do like to show off your struggles with reading comprehension.
JVK
1 / 5 (3) Aug 25, 2015
Are you claiming that the authors of the article linked the mutations to the evolution of whales?

Perhaps you've been eating too much chicken and the viruses are destroying what's left of your brain. Try eating horsemeat or beaver instead. Bats harbor the Ebola viruses, so don't eat them.

http://inhabitat....nd-meat/

Tracking niche variation over millennial timescales in sympatric killer whale lineages
http://rspb.royal...81.short

Excerpt: "Ecological variation is the raw material by which natural selection can drive evolutionary divergence [1–4]."

Not just in whales. If you don't believe me, eat more chicken and see what you evolve into:

Bacteriophages isolated from chicken meat and the horizontal transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes http://aem.asm.or...abstract
Vietvet
5 / 5 (3) Aug 25, 2015
Are you claiming that the authors of the article linked the mutations to the evolution of whales?

"The shift from terrestrial to aquatic life by whales was a substantial evolutionary event."

"Overall the whale-genome sequences exhibited distinct features that are associated with the physiological and morphological changes needed for life in an aquatic environment, marked by resistance to physiological stresses caused by a lack of oxygen, increased amounts of reactive oxygen species and high salt levels."

I could quote more from the study but clearly they identified genetic mutations (beneficial mutations) that allowed the transition from a terrestrial environment to an aquatic environment.

Obviously they are linking genetic mutations to the evolution of whales. It couldn't be any plainer but we all know how you fail at reading comprehension.
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (3) Aug 26, 2015
That's what urban guerillas and terrorists claim
lets see.. you claim i am a terrorist because i follow SCIENCE and require evidence and refuse to call religious proselytizing Science?

lets look at jk with the same critical eye!
jk: Narcissist, delusions of Mensa grandeur, failed out of college [self admitted], a lab tech trying to convince people he did diagnostic medicine [felony], religious acolyte pushing known creationist dogma, NO evidence supporting his claims, 100% fail rate interpreting/comprehending science

RESULT?
jk= pedophile

jk's accuracy based upon 40 yrs lab tech perfumer & demonstrated fail rate interpreting modern science as he lashes out at people who call him wrong (Dunning-Kruger)= MAYBE 3% with luck

My accuracy based upon modern methodology in profiling and investigating = 85%

Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (3) Aug 26, 2015
there is more than one James Kohl who is fighting against terrorism in the context of what Greg Bear has accurately portrayed about cell type differentiation in several different novels
that makes absolutely NO sense!
you are NOT fighting against terrorism, BUT...
you ARE A TERRORIST as demonstrated here
People like [me]...don't like the fact that young earth creationists already addressed de novo creation of genes and virus-driven pathology
found here: http://phys.org/n...ete.html

This is called religious proselytizing, and is known typical actions of a fanatical religious acolyte, which is the basis of extremism (because you refuse to acknowledge reality and SCIENCE, therefore you fight against it). this is, BY DEFINITION a domestic terrorist tactic, per Title 22 USC, Section 2656f(d)
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (3) Aug 26, 2015
Biologically uninformed science idiots who cannot grasp the difference between an amino acid substitution and a mutation after I detailed biologically-based cause and effect in the context of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions should stop making ridiculous comments and start to address the facts, or let serious scientists do that.
Ok, lets let some SERIOUS SCIENTISTS talk about your work and interpretations of THEIR work!

like: Dr. Extavour!
shall i point out what was said about your specific "interpretations" of her scientific work which YOU CLAIMED supported your "anti-mutation" theory?
I CAN RE-POST THOSE COMMENTS HERE if you like!

you were DEBUNKED by Dr. Extavour AND Dr. Whittaker, and also Lenski!!!
why? because they used EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE and demonstrated with experiments that you were wrong! [the scientific method - all VALIDATED]

You can't get your own data straight! you are anti-mutations BUT PROMOTING MUTATIONS in your model!
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Aug 26, 2015
jk has been linking "Combating Evolution to Fight Disease" from SCiMag since it was published in an effort to make the article sound like it somehow is AGAINST mutations and modern Evolution theory, however, as noted above by myself and Vietvet, plus many others, the article is ACTUALLY about two fields joining forces to combat the STUPIDITY of religious acolytes like jk and their creationist claims!
it is about making the data stronger with evidence, NOT about debunking Evolution!

jk want people to believe it is about anti-Evolution because HE knows most people can't actually access the article... but there are some who CAN access it, and i challenge jk to present ANYTHING from that full article that in ANY way refutes modern Evolution Theory

he can't
because it isn't there
that is also why he calls anyone arguing against his PSEUDOSCIENCE a terrorist... because he is using STRAWMAN and FEAR to make people think he might have real science

HE DOESN'T
JVK
1 / 5 (2) Aug 26, 2015
http://www.huffin...216.html Excerpt: "So indeed, the new understanding of evolution needs to integrate what we now know about viruses and virus-host interactions which, from my own perspective, has been absolutely one of the key factors of all evolution since the emergence of cells -- well, actually even before the emergence of cells."

At the same time Eugene Koonin claims that there is a need for a new understanding of evolution, we see this:

"Evidence for Retromutagenesis as a Mechanism for Adaptive Mutation in Escherichia coli" reported as: http://medicalxpr...nce.html

"This mechanism may explain how bacteria develop resistance to some types of antibiotics under selective pressure, as well as how mutations in cancer cells enable their growth or resistance to chemotherapy drugs," says senior author Paul Doetsch, PhD.
JVK
1 / 5 (2) Aug 26, 2015
If only from the perspective of the two articles linked above, an intelligent reasonable person would see that mutations cannot be linked to antibiotic resistance and to cancer and to cancer resistance to chemotherapy drugs. Intelligent, reasonable people would consider the need for organisms to adapt to the presence of viruses via nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated gene duplication and amino acid substitutions that stabilize protein folding in the organized genomes of all genera via the physiology of reproduction.

If there are any intelligent reasonable discussants here who are interested in what is currently known to serious scientists about cell type differentiation, now is the time to announce yourself. If you want to let biologically uninformed science idiots to rule phys.org and medicalXpress, everyone falls prey to ignorance.

See instead: https://www.googl...mediated
Captain Stumpy
5 / 5 (2) Aug 26, 2015
If there are any intelligent reasonable discussants here who are interested in what is currently known
There ARE plenty of intelligent reasonable "discussants"... but you are NOT one of them

an "intelligent reasonable discussant" would:
-Follow the evidence
-respect the SCIENCE
-comprehend the basic lexicon b/c they would actually take time to research the definitions of what is being discussed
-ask authors to clarify the issue when confused
-WOULD NOT PROSELYTIZE with religious dogma in a scientific discussion

you have FAILED in all these respects, jk, PROVING that you are NOT here to be a "intelligent reasonable discussant"... you are here to push an AGENDA: your religion
you are here to proselytize creationist dogma

creationism is NOT SCIENCE
but you ARE right about one thing! "If you want to let biologically uninformed science idiots to rule phys.org and medicalXpress, everyone falls prey to ignorance."
THATS why YOU should be BANNED from PO/MX
JVK
1 / 5 (2) Aug 26, 2015
an "intelligent reasonable discussant" would:
-Follow the evidence

http://medicalxpr...nce.html was reported yesterday.

2012 Genome-Wide Detection of Single-Nucleotide and Copy-Number Variations of a Single Human Cell http://www.scienc...abstract

2013 Rare event of histone demethylation can initiate singular gene expression of olfactory receptors
http://www.pnas.o...abstract

Detection of Single-Nucleotide and Copy-Number Variations of a Single Human Cell are linked to the honeybee model of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation via the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes and virus-driven gene loss when RNA-mediated gene duplication causes one more functional allele to be created compared to another. That's how ecological variation is linked to ecological adaptation by following the research.

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