The fate of bioavailable iron in Antarctic coastal seas

Dec 13, 2013 by Dana Desonie
The fate of bioavailable iron in Antarctic coastal seas
On the left is an XRF micrograph map of silicon distribution in the diatom Corethron spp. On the right is a map of the distribution of iron in the same diatom. (The images are 66 µm in width.) Lighter colors indicate higher concentrations. Note how the distribution of iron mirrors the distribution of silicon.

Science is exploring many options for carbon dioxide sequestration in order to mitigate the climatological impact of CO2. One of these is geoengineering: deliberate, large-scale intervention in the Earth's natural systems to counteract climate change. Understanding all of the possible effects of geoengineering, such as the results of iron fertilization on marine ecosystems, is vital. In iron fertilization, which has been discussed as a way to sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, iron is introduced to the surface ocean to stimulate a phytoplankton bloom in locations where iron is the limiting nutrient. Carbon taken up by the phytoplankton is later sequestered in deep sea sediments.

Researchers using the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science's Advanced Photon Source found that was incorporated into biogenic silica in diatoms from the Southern Ocean and was then lost from the ecosystem. The loss of bioavailable iron could favor the growth of phytoplankton species that are less efficient at assimilating carbon, the opposite of the desired result of iron fertilization.

Diatoms, single-celled algae that have a cell wall of silica, account for nearly half of the annual marine carbon fixation worldwide, and dominate many phytoplankton communities in Antarctic coastal seas. After the organisms die, their dense siliceous shells descend into the deep ocean. The sequestration of carbon in deep sea sediments is a crucial sink for , an important greenhouse gas. Iron is a limiting nutrient in phytoplankton communities in these seasonally ice-covered seas, which include some of the most biologically productive regions of the Southern Ocean, like the Ross Sea. Bioavailable iron limits biological production and also affects the composition of the .

The availability of iron, therefore, can limit uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide, with important implications for the climate. Understanding iron cycling in Antarctic phytoplankton is crucial for determining whether can be an effective strategy for reducing .

In the Ross Sea, bioavailable iron enters the area through snow melt and dust deposition. Iron removal is calculated to be about equal to iron input. Fertilizing the surface ocean with iron increases biological productivity, but the resulting carbon dioxide removal will be much less than expected due to the increased productivity of diatoms, which incorporate and remove the bioavailable iron.

The resultant decrease in iron favors plankton communities with lower iron requirements. Phaeocystis antarctica, a non-siliceous prymnesiophyte, dominates some Southern Ocean phytoplankton communities, but loses out to diatoms when bioavailable iron is low. P. antarctica assimilates more carbon dioxide than diatoms, so a shift to a diatom-rich phytoplankton community may reduce , the opposite of the desired effect.

In this investigation, the researchers from the Georgia Institute of Technology, the University of Georgia, the Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, and Argonne National Laboratory discovered an important sink for iron in some marine systems. Utilizing X-ray Science Division beamlines 2-ID-D and 2-ID-E at the Argonne Advanced Photon Source, the researchers performed x-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy and x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy on samples of the diatom genera Fragilariopsis and Corethron from the Ross Sea.

Two morphologically distinct forms of iron were discovered: one reduced form was structurally incorporated into the biogenic silica; the second form was hot spots of iron that were more oxidized.

The researchers conclude that the iron was incorporated into the biogenic silica because iron in contact with seawater would become at least partially oxidized. This incorporated organic iron has a better chance of surviving diagenesis (the conversion, as by compaction or chemical reaction, of sediment into rock) deep in a frustule (the 2-valved siliceous shell of a diatom) than it would in a surface coating or in the protoplasm. When the siliceous diatoms sink to the sea floor, the iron is sequestered from the marine ecosystem. The loss of iron from the surface may reduce biological productivity in locations where iron is limiting.

This research leads to a greater understanding of the dynamics of iron cycling in the Southern Ocean with possible implications for improving .

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More information: Ellery D. Ingall, Julia M. Diaz, Amelia F. Longo, et al. "Role of biogenic silica in the removal of iron from the Antarctic seas," Nat. Comm. 4, 1981 (2013). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2981

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1 / 5 (1) Dec 14, 2013
does anyone remember bio dome? we cannot sustain a small area as an ecosystem so what makes us think we can control the entire planet? Sometimes when you really mess something up, the best thing is to back up and realize you are the problem. we can not even keep ourselves in supply of fish. Let the earth be forever changed by us and life do what it does... find a way.
not rated yet Dec 15, 2013
Someone dumped a bunch of iron in the Pacific NW to do this 4-5 years ago or so and it messed with the ecosystem, I think dinoflagellates bloomed and they are toxic more often than not, it did not produce the desired result.

Try zeroing emissions, it's a pipe dream to think sequestration can work until that's done, we're at 400-ppm sports fans and gaining 3-ppm/year, natural processes operate at 0.001-0.005 ppm/year ... fools at the helm of a planet.