Voyager 1 has left the solar system, says new study

August 15, 2013

( —Voyager 1 appears to have at long last left our solar system and entered interstellar space, says a University of Maryland-led team of researchers.

Carrying Earthly greetings on a gold plated phonograph record and still-operational – including the Low Energy Charged Particle detector designed, built and overseen, in part, by UMD's Space Physics Group – NASA's Voyager 1 has traveled farther from Earth than any other human-made object. And now, these researchers say, it has begun the first exploration of our galaxy beyond the Sun's influence.

"It's a somewhat controversial view, but we think Voyager has finally left the Solar System, and is truly beginning its travels through the Milky Way," says UMD research scientist Marc Swisdak, lead author of a new paper published online this week in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Swisdak and fellow James F. Drake, also of the University of Maryland, and Merav Opher of Boston University have constructed a model of the outer edge of the Solar System that fits recent observations, both expected and unexpected.

Their model indicates Voyager 1 actually entered interstellar space a little more than a year ago, a finding directly counter to recent papers by NASA and other scientists suggesting the spacecraft was still in a fuzzily-defined transition zone between the Sun's sphere of influence and the rest of the galaxy.

But why the controversy?

At issue is what the boundary-crossing should look like to Earth-bound observers 11 billion miles (18 billion kilometers) away. The Sun's envelope, known as the , is relatively well-understood as the region of space dominated by the magnetic field and charged particles emanating from our star. The heliopause is both of unknown structure and location. According to conventional wisdom, we'll know we've passed through this mysterious boundary when we stop seeing and start seeing galactic particles, and we also detect a change in the prevailing direction of the local magnetic field.

NASA scientists recently reported that last summer, after eight years of travel through the outermost layer of the heliosphere, Voyager 1 recorded "multiple crossings of a boundary unlike anything previously observed." Successive dips in, and subsequent recovery of, solar particle counts caught researchers' attention. The dips in solar particle counts corresponded with abrupt increases in galactic electrons and protons. Within a month, solar particle counts disappeared, and only galactic particle counts remained. Yet Voyager 1 observed no change in the direction of the magnetic field.

To explain this unexpected observation, many scientists theorize that Voyager 1 has entered a "heliosheath depletion region," but that the probe is still within the confines of the heliosphere.

Swisdak and colleagues, who are not part of the Voyager 1 mission science teams, say there is another explanation.

In previous work, Swisdak and Drake have focused on magnetic reconnection, or the breaking and reconfiguring of close and oppositely-directed magnetic field lines. It's the phenomenon suspected to lurk at the heart of solar flares, coronal mass ejections and many of the sun's other dramatic, high-energy events. The UMD researchers argue that magnetic reconnection is also key to understanding NASA's surprising data.

Though often depicted as a bubble encasing the heliosphere and its contents, the heliopause is not a surface neatly separating "outside" and "inside." In fact, Swisdak, Drake and Opher assert that the heliopause is both porous to certain particles and layered with complex magnetic structure. Here, magnetic reconnection produces a complex set of nested magnetic "islands," self-contained loops which spontaneously arise in a magnetic field due to a fundamental instability. Interstellar plasma can penetrate into the heliosphere along reconnected field lines, and galactic cosmic rays and solar particles mix vigorously.

Most interestingly, drops in solar particle counts and surges in galactic particle counts can occur across "slopes" in the magnetic field, which emanate from reconnection sites, while the magnetic field direction itself remains unchanged. This model explains observed phenomena from last summer, and Swisdak and his colleagues suggest that Voyager 1 actually crossed the heliopause on July 27, 2012.

In a NASA statement, Ed Stone, Voyager project scientist and a professor of physics of the California Institute of Technology, says, in part, "Other models envision the interstellar magnetic field draped around our solar bubble and predict that the direction of the interstellar magnetic field is different from the solar inside. By that interpretation, Voyager 1 would still be inside our solar bubble. The fine-scale magnetic connection model [of Swisdak and colleagues] will become part of the discussion among scientists as they try to reconcile what may be happening on a fine scale with what happens on a larger scale."

Voyager Interstellar Mission

In the 36th year after their 1977 launches, the twin Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft continue exploring where nothing from Earth has flown before. Their primary mission was the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. After making a string of discoveries there—such as active volcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io and intricacies of Saturn's rings—the mission was extended. Voyager 2 went on to explore Uranus and Neptune, and is still the only spacecraft to have visited those outer planets. The current mission for both spacecraft, the Voyager Interstellar Mission, is to explore the outermost edge of the Sun's domain and beyond. Both Voyagers are capable of returning scientific data from a full range of instruments, with adequate electrical power and attitude control propellant to keep operating until 2020. Voyager 2 is expected to enter a few years after its twin. The Voyager spacecraft were built and continue to be operated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Pasadena, Calif.

University of Maryland scientists lead the Deep Impact spacecraft science team and are part of the science teams of many of the other spacecraft exploring our Solar System, including both Voyagers and Cassini.

Explore further: Voyager observes magnetic field fluctuations in heliosheath

More information: Paper:

NASA Voyager statement about competing models to explain recent spacecraft data

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1.7 / 5 (12) Aug 15, 2013
Oh is it time for our monthly "voyager may or may not have left the solar system" article already? Geez time flies so fast.
1.6 / 5 (7) Aug 15, 2013
I wonder why they left out the Voyagers discovery that cosmic rays are now coming from a single direction instead from every direction.
Aug 15, 2013
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3 / 5 (3) Aug 15, 2013
Why do some scientists think that the galactal magnetic field in the region just outside of our solar system is even detectable? The closest star is more than 2000 of times farther away than Voyager 1 from us. The relative magnetic field at the position of Voyager 1 from the closest star (I know that we don't know the magnetic alignment of it) would be on average 11 billiion times weaker than the sun's. Even if you add in all of the other billions of stars, they are even much further away that the relative magnetic field would be virtually undetectable.

Am I missing something?

I believe it's more that stars only exert a magnetic field over a set range of space in any certain direction. Meaning that the space between two stars would be void of their influence and have some kind of other cosmic stuff in it.
5 / 5 (2) Aug 15, 2013
I'm sure most have seen this, but in case not:

The hover text is good too.
1.2 / 5 (14) Aug 15, 2013
Why do some scientists think that the galactal magnetic field in the region just outside of our solar system is even detectable? The closest star is more than 2000 of times farther away than Voyager 1 from us. The relative magnetic field at the position of Voyager 1 from the closest star (I know that we don't know the magnetic alignment of it) would be on average 11 billiion times weaker than the sun's. Even if you add in all of the other billions of stars, they are even much further away that the relative magnetic field would be virtually undetectable.

Am I missing something?

The galactic magnetic field in relation to the stars is analogous to the Sun's field in relation to the planets. The galactic magnetic field is not a sum of all the stars fields.
1.9 / 5 (9) Aug 16, 2013
They know it reached intergalactic hyperspace, because that is when it ran out of extension cord and suddenly turned off.

1 / 5 (1) Aug 16, 2013
"The Kirk Unit is defective. I will effect repairs......."
no fate
not rated yet Aug 16, 2013
Odd there would even be a dispute. The particles don't lie. If they aren't solar in nature then voyager is not inside the helio phere any longer.

Good luck out there.
1 / 5 (2) Aug 16, 2013
No need for a debate, since both Voyager craft are still functioning. Time will tell. New Horizon is headed that way too, so if it survives it will measure this region as well.

So, for now we can accept all reasonable interpretations of the data and wait to pass final verdict on which, if any, are correct.

Personally, I suspect voyager is still in the Heliopause, and we will eventually see the magnetic field change. I wouldn't rule out the possiblity that voyager is already in interstellar space, but I think the other possibility is more likely.
1 / 5 (4) Aug 16, 2013
Aug 17, 2013
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1 / 5 (7) Aug 17, 2013
So there is no hard line to cross, only etherial presumptive long distance, long time, more of this and less of that, more or less completely undetectable, undifferentiated zoning.

How about saying, "It's just gone."

Give it lots of waves, blow it kisses, and start taking bets on when the reactor goes kaput - day, month and year.
1 / 5 (8) Aug 18, 2013
Yeah---I want to know what this "stuff" is. Where is the supposed galactic magnetic field coming from?

The galactic magnetic field is a large scale structure, extending to at least to the series of galaxies orbiting the MW. As far as the stuff that enables such large scale structures? It's probably something like this;
paired with this;
does pretty well in explaining the observations.
1.5 / 5 (8) Aug 19, 2013
Well if it's out of Uranus, the it must have been blown clear through the panty style enveloping of the universes.

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