Human transition from foraging to farming was a gradual co-evolution, not a rapid innovation

Aug 23, 2013
Human transition from foraging to farming was a gradual co-evolution, not a rapid innovation

Research by SFI Professor Sam Bowles on the co-evolution of agriculture and private property features prominently in a review in Current Biology about scientists' current understanding of the factors leading to humanity's transition from foraging to farming.

"The archaeological evidence that has accumulated so far suggests that the introduction of farming wasn't a straightforward technological revolution driven by key inventions like the introduction of or airplanes," writes Current Biology's Michael Gross. "While the efficiency per hectare improved dramatically, the efficiency per person certainly did not, as Samuel Bowles from the Santa Fe Institute (New Mexico, USA) has calculated." A 2011 paper by Bowles found that the earliest farmers produced significantly fewer calories per work hour, on average, than foragers.

Gross also cites a 2013 paper by Bowles and Jung-Kyoo Choi that examined the interaction between farming and the emergence of private property by modeling , , different approaches to food provision, and different approaches to property sharing. The model showed that property rights among farming populations likely co-evolved with the introduction of farming methods, and only under tightly constrained conditions.

"Bowles and Choi argue that it was the co-evolution of food production and property rights—rather than technological progress based on inventions—that secured the success of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent and the small number of other regions where agriculture evolved independently at later times," Gross writes.

Gross also reviews recent , which generally support the hypothesis that "a confluence of various developments catalysed each other...Only after millennia of slow changes did the early farmers gain the advantages that enabled them to push aside populations adhering to the earlier hunter-gatherer lifestyles."

Read the article in Current Biology (August 19, 20213)

Explore further: Everglades trail surveyed for cultural artifacts

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Why the switch from foraging to farming?

Mar 07, 2011

Thousands of years ago, our ancestors gave up foraging for food and took up farming, one of the most important and debated decisions in history.

Crowd wisdom economics: The bad news

May 29, 2013

(Phys.org) —Volkswagen is simply a better car company than Fiat. Profits are higher, and so are wages. Why doesn't Fiat just be like VW? Why doesn't Italy, for that matter, emulate Germany? Is it elites that perpetuate ...

Recommended for you

Secrets of dinosaur ecology found in fragile amber

5 hours ago

Ryan McKellar's research sounds like it was plucked from Jurassic Park: he studies pieces of amber found buried with dinosaur skeletons. But rather than re-creating dinosaurs, McKellar uses the tiny pieces ...

New progress of the Neogene Suidae research

Oct 17, 2014

Dr. Hou Sukuan and Prof. Deng Tao from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology(IVPP), Chinese Academy of Sciences reported a new species of Chleuastochoerus from the Linxia Basin, Gansu ...

User comments : 0