GR20/Amaldi10: Space-time is not the same for everyone

Jul 09, 2013
In the mathematical model constructed by theorists at the Department of Physics, University of Warsaw, classical space-time is created by the interaction of matter with quantum gravity. The process resembles how an ice crystal lattice (symbolizing classical space-time) is formed by freezing liquid water (quantum gravity). Recent studies on the model suggest that different elementary particles generate different classical space-times. (Source: FUW) Credit: ©Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw

Before the Big Bang, space-time as we know it did not exist. So how was it born? The process of creating normal space-time from an earlier state dominated by quantum gravity has been studied for years by theorists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw. Recent analyses suggest a surprising conclusion: not all elementary particles are subject to the same space-time.

Several billion years ago, in the era soon after the Big Bang, the Universe was so dense and so hot that felt the existence of gravity strongly. For decades, physicists around the world have been attempting to discover the laws of quantum gravity describing this phase of the evolution of the Universe. Recently Professor Jerzy Lewandowski's group at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw (FUW) proposed its own model of the quantum Universe. Recent studies of its properties, discussed during the 20th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation (GR20), being held in Warsaw in conjunction with the 10th Edoardo Amaldi Conference on Gravitational Waves (Amaldi10), have surprised researchers. The analyses performed by Prof. Lewandowski and his PhD student Andrea Dapor show that different elementary particles "experience" the existence of different space-times.

One of the attempts to describe quantum gravity is called (LQG). This theory assumes that space-time is structurally somewhat similar to a fabric: It consists of a large number of very small fibres entangled in loops. A field with an area of one square centimetre might hold a million trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion (10^66) such fibres.

Three years ago, Prof. Lewandowski's group developed a consistent mathematical model of LQG that combines with general relativity. The model assumes the existence of two interacting fields. One is a gravitational field, which can be identified with a space (since, according to the , gravity warps space-time, and this curved space-time gives rise to gravitational effects). The second field in the model is a (scalar) field that assigns a number to each point in space. This field is interpreted as the simplest type of matter.

The image of reality in the model put forward by the Warsaw University physicists is quantum, and so has characteristics extremely different from those of the world we deal with every day. "In this situation, it seemed natural to ask: How does the space-time known to all of us emerge from the primary states of quantum gravity? And since normal space-time would be born as a result of the interaction between matter and quantum gravity, can we be certain that each type of matter definitely interacts with a space-time that has the same properties?," says Prof. Lewandowski.

To find answers to these questions, theorists first derived patterns of interaction between quantum gravity effects and matter for the two mathematically simplest cases: for zero rest mass particles and for simple (scalar) non-zero rest mass particles. In the Standard Model, which in modern physics describes the elementary particles and their interactions, the relevant massless particles would be photons, and scalar non-zero rest mass particles with mass—the famous Higgs boson, responsible for the mass of the other particles: quarks and electrons, muons, taus and their associated neutrinos.

After deriving the equations representing the behaviour of particles in accordance with the laws of the model, FUW physicists started to check whether similar equations could be obtained with the use of ordinary space-time with different symmetries. For massless particles this turned out to be possible. The sought-for space-time was isotropic, i.e. it had the same properties in all directions.

"According to the simplified model we researched, regardless of whether the photon has greater momentum or less, more energy or less, space-time appears to it to be the same in all directions," explains Prof. Lewandowski.

For particles with mass, the situation was different. The existence of mass imposes a specific additional condition on the theory. The FUW physicists showed that a classical space-time, which would simultaneously meet the mass condition and have the same properties in all directions, cannot be constructed. The appropriate space-time could be found only among anisotropic space-times. The preferred direction of these space-times was the particle's direction of motion.

"Particles with mass not only experience different space-times than photons do, but each sees its own private version of space-time depending on the direction it moves in. This finding really took us by surprise," says PhD student Andrea Dapor.

Does this latest discovery mean that the Universe of particles with mass is not isotropic? Such an assertion would be of huge experimental and observational importance. However, the answer is no, the Universe does not have a preferred direction. As observers studying the behaviour of elementary particles, we are classical, rather than quantum, systems and in a sense we are "outside" the particles' world. It is not then important what each particle "experiences" of its space-time. Regardless of the direction of flight, all recorded in the laboratory will have exactly the same characteristics. For this reason, experimentally confirming the theoretical predictions of the FUW team will be no trivial task.

Explore further: Watching the structure of glass under pressure

More information: gr20-amaldi10.edu.pl/ GR20/Amaldi10 Conference website.

Provided by University of Warsaw

4.4 /5 (16 votes)
add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

The Big Bang versus the 'Big Bounce'

Jul 06, 2012

Two fundamental concepts in physics, both of which explain the nature of the Universe in many ways, have been difficult to reconcile with each other. European researchers developed a mathematical approach ...

Physicist clarifies Higgs boson in human terms

May 31, 2013

Why did the journal Science name the Higgs boson – an elementary particle – last year's most important discovery? And why did it need something as enormous as the Large Hadron Collider, about 27 kilometers in diameter, to fin ...

Recommended for you

Watching the structure of glass under pressure

14 hours ago

Glass has many applications that call for different properties, such as resistance to thermal shock or to chemically harsh environments. Glassmakers commonly use additives such as boron oxide to tweak these ...

Inter-dependent networks stress test

17 hours ago

Energy production systems are good examples of complex systems. Their infrastructure equipment requires ancillary sub-systems structured like a network—including water for cooling, transport to supply fuel, and ICT systems ...

Explainer: How does our sun shine?

18 hours ago

What makes our sun shine has been a mystery for most of human history. Given our sun is a star and stars are suns, explaining the source of the sun's energy would help us understand why stars shine. ...

User comments : 5

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

ant_oacute_nio354
1 / 5 (8) Jul 09, 2013
Spacetime doesn't exist.
Lorentz equations has nothing to do with space and time, but with
wavelength and period of an electromagnetic wave.
Lorentz equations give the Doppler shifts for transversal waves.
c^2.t^2 - x^2 = S ; S = 1.9121x10^-34m2

Antonio Jose Saraiva
hemitite
not rated yet Jul 09, 2013
Testing this theory should be no problem once we can test for plank length quantum gravity loops...
vacuum-mechanics
1 / 5 (9) Jul 09, 2013
Before the Big Bang, space-time as we know it did not exist. So how was it born? The process of creating normal space-time from an earlier state dominated by quantum gravity ….

Several billion years ago, in the era soon after the Big Bang, the Universe was so dense and so hot ….


Where is this huge condition come from?

Three years ago, Prof. Lewandowski's group developed a consistent mathematical model of LQG that combines quantum mechanics with general relativity….


Nowadays we know that it is not so successful, may be this simple understandable view could guide the way to a more realistic theory ….

http://www.vacuum...=9〈=en

vlaaing peerd
5 / 5 (2) Jul 10, 2013
post#1 yes it does. wanna balloon?
post#2 yup....noooooo problem at all
post#3 or maybe it doesn't. The hot condition probably came from...I dunno, the big bang maybe?

see! I can do science me.

I think I need to have another coffee and read the article yet another few times just to ensure that apart from very interesting I really have no idea what they're talking about.
Nerfherder
not rated yet Sep 03, 2013
What does it mean to experience a different spacetime?

I wonder what it would be like to live in a world where the direction we travelled in meant a different space time?

Doesn't it already?

Would it be any different? The strength of gravity is different over a scale.