Huge, aggressive mosquito may be abundant in Florida this summer, expert warns

Mar 05, 2013 by Tom Nordlie
Huge, aggressive mosquito may be abundant in Florida this summer, expert warns
Entomologist Phil Kaufman, an associate professor with the University of Florida’s Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, shows the size difference between the invasive Asian tiger mosquito, right, and the native species Psorophora ciliata, sometimes called the gallinipper in this March 4, 2013, photo. Last June, Florida had a bumper crop of gallinippers due to widespread rains from Tropical Storm Debbie, and Kaufman says it’s possible the state will see a repeat this summer. Female gallinippers lay their eggs in soil around low spots that are periodically flooded; the eggs hatch when heavy rains come. Credit: UF/IFAS photo by Marisol Amador

If mosquitoes were motorcycles, the species known as Psorophora ciliata would be a Harley-Davidson—big, bold, American-made and likely to be abundant in Florida this summer.

Just how abundant is a matter of speculation, but University of Florida entomologist Phil Kaufman says last year the state had a bumper crop of the huge, biting insects, which are sometimes called gallinippers. He said there may be a repeat on the way.

"I wouldn't be surprised, given the numbers we saw last year," said Kaufman, an associate professor with UF's Institute of Food and . "When we hit the rainy cycle we may see that again."

The gallinipper is a floodwater mosquito, with females laying eggs in soil at the edges of ponds, streams and other water bodies that overflow when come. The eggs can remain dry and dormant for years, until high waters cause them to hatch, Kaufman said.

Last June, Tropical Storm Debbie caused flooding in many parts of Florida and unleashed large numbers of gallinippers, along with other floodwater mosquitoes.

To help residents understand the species better, Kaufman and UF/IFAS entomology graduate student Ephraim Ragasa created a document on gallinippers for the department's "Featured Creatures" website. It's now available on IFAS' Electronic Data Information Source, at edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in967.

Native to the entire eastern half of North America, the insect has a body about half an inch long, with a black-and-white color pattern that makes it resemble a super-sized version of the invasive .

As with other biting mosquitoes, only the female gallinippers are blood feeders; males survive on flower nectar. The species is notoriously aggressive and has a painful bite.

"The bite really hurts, I can attest to that," Kaufman said.

Even in the larval stage, gallinippers are fearsome. Most mosquito larvae are content to subsist on decaying floating in the waters where they develop, but gallinippers are omnivorous, devouring other and even tadpoles.

With that trait in mind, observers have suggested the gallinipper might be a good candidate for biological control efforts, using the larvae to reduce populations of other pest mosquitoes. But that strategy has a fatal flaw, Ragasa says – it results in more gallinippers.

"That kind of defeats the purpose of using them for biocontrol," he said.

Gallinippers can be warded off with repellents containing DEET, though Kaufman said that due to their large size they may be more tolerant of the compound than smaller biting . Other precautions include wearing long pants and long-sleeved shirts when venturing into wooded areas, especially places where standing water collects after rain storms.

There are a few good things one can say about this mosquito: It isn't considered a significant vector of mosquito-borne illness affecting people or animals. And human activity doesn't seem to boost its populations.

"This isn't one where you build a subdivision and start to see more," Kaufman said.

Explore further: Noted researchers warn that biomedical research system in US is unsustainable

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Recommended for you

Orchid named after UC Riverside researcher

1 hour ago

One day about eight years ago, Katia Silvera, a postdoctoral scholar at the University of California, Riverside, and her father were on a field trip in a mountainous area in central Panama when they stumbled ...

For resetting circadian rhythms, neural cooperation is key

2 hours ago

Fruit flies are pretty predictable when it comes to scheduling their days, with peaks of activity at dawn and dusk and rest times in between. Now, researchers reporting in the Cell Press journal Cell Reports on April 17th h ...

User comments : 0

More news stories

Fear of the cuckoo mafia

If a restaurant owner fails to pay the protection money demanded of him, he can expect his premises to be trashed. Warnings like these are seldom required, however, as fear of the consequences is enough to ...

Clean air: Fewer sources for self-cleaning

Up to now, HONO, also known as nitrous acid, was considered one of the most important sources of hydroxyl radicals (OH), which are regarded as the detergent of the atmosphere, allowing the air to clean itself. ...

Turning off depression in the brain

Scientists have traced vulnerability to depression-like behaviors in mice to out-of-balance electrical activity inside neurons of the brain's reward circuit and experimentally reversed it – but there's ...

Thinnest feasible nano-membrane produced

A new nano-membrane made out of the 'super material' graphene is extremely light and breathable. Not only can this open the door to a new generation of functional waterproof clothing, but also to ultra-rapid filtration. The ...