WISE survey uncovers millions of black holes

Aug 29, 2012
With its all-sky infrared survey, NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, has identified millions of quasar candidates. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA

(Phys.org)—NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission has led to a bonanza of newfound supermassive black holes and extreme galaxies called hot DOGs, or dust-obscured galaxies.

Images from the telescope have revealed millions of dusty black hole candidates across the universe and about 1,000 even dustier objects thought to be among the brightest ever found. These powerful galaxies, which burn brightly with infrared light, are nicknamed .

"WISE has exposed a menagerie of hidden objects," said Hashima Hasan, WISE program scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington. "We've found an asteroid dancing ahead of Earth in its orbit, the coldest star-like orbs known and now, supermassive black holes and galaxies hiding behind cloaks of dust."

WISE scanned the whole sky twice in infrared light, completing its survey in early 2011. Like night-vision goggles probing the dark, the telescope captured millions of images of the sky. All the data from the mission have been released publicly, allowing astronomers to dig in and make .

The latest findings are helping astronomers better understand how galaxies and the behemoth black holes at their centers grow and evolve together. For example, the giant black hole at the center of our , called Sagittarius A*, has 4 million times the mass of our sun and has gone through periodic feeding frenzies where material falls towards the black hole, heats up and irradiates its surroundings. Bigger central black holes, up to a billion times the mass of our sun, may even shut down in galaxies.

The entire sky as mapped by WISE at infrared wavelengths is shown here, with an artist's concept of the WISE satellite superimposed. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA

In one study, astronomers used WISE to identify about 2.5 million actively feeding supermassive black holes across the full sky, stretching back to distances more than 10 billion light-years away. About two-thirds of these objects never had been detected before because dust blocks their visible light. WISE easily sees these monsters because their powerful, accreting black holes warm the dust, causing it to glow in infrared light.

"We've got the black holes cornered," said Daniel Stern of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., lead author of the WISE black hole study and project scientist for another NASA black-hole mission, the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). "WISE is finding them across the full sky, while NuSTAR is giving us an entirely new look at their high-energy X-ray light and learning what makes them tick."

In two other WISE papers, researchers report finding what are among the brightest galaxies known, one of the main goals of the mission. So far, they have identified about 1,000 candidates.

These extreme objects can pour out more than 100 trillion times as much light as our sun. They are so dusty, however, that they appear only in the longest wavelengths of captured by WISE. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope followed up on the discoveries in more detail and helped show that, in addition to hosting feverishly snacking on gas and dust, these DOGs are busy churning out new stars.

"These dusty, cataclysmically forming galaxies are so rare WISE had to scan the entire sky to find them," said Peter Eisenhardt, lead author of the paper on the first of these bright, dusty galaxies, and project scientist for WISE at JPL. "We are also seeing evidence that these record setters may have formed their before the bulk of their stars. The 'eggs' may have come before the 'chickens.'"

More than 100 of these objects, located about 10 billion light-years away, have been confirmed using the W.M. Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, as well as the Gemini Observatory in Chile, Palomar's 200-inch Hale telescope near San Diego, and the Multiple Mirror Telescope Observatory near Tucson, Ariz.

The WISE observations, combined with data at even longer infrared wavelengths from Caltech's Submillimeter Observatory atop Mauna Kea, revealed that these extreme galaxies are more than twice as hot as other infrared-bright galaxies. One theory is their dust is being heated by an extremely powerful burst of activity from the supermassive black hole.

"We may be seeing a new, rare phase in the evolution of galaxies," said Jingwen Wu of JPL, lead author of the study on the submillimeter observations. All three papers are being published in the Astrophysical Journal.

The three technical journal articles, including PDFs, can be found at arxiv.org/abs/1205.0811, arxiv.org/abs/1208.5517 and arxiv.org/abs/1208.5518 .

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Tuxford
1 / 5 (11) Aug 29, 2012
"The 'eggs' may have come before the 'chickens."

I think that was my line....see my first comment here.

http://phys.org/n...ies.html

Yes indeed, since the material forming the stars originates from within the supermassive core star. Astronomers are still circling the wagons, but at least they are on the trail....Hot doggies!

Shootist
3.4 / 5 (10) Aug 30, 2012
"Supermassive core star"?
Oliver Manuel, Ph.D., Chief Investigator for Apollo? Is that you?
cantdrive85
1.4 / 5 (11) Aug 30, 2012
Search-
'A Blind Man in a Dark Room Looking for a Black hole that isn't There'
Brian Schmidt et al. authored the paper Formation of the Black Hole in Nova Scorpii, The Astrophysical Journal, 567:491-502, 2002 March 1.

Reality is much different than what most astrophysicists would like you to "believe"!
jsdarkdestruction
3.7 / 5 (6) Aug 30, 2012
"Supermassive core star"?
Oliver Manuel, Ph.D., Chief Investigator for Apollo? Is that you?

its even worse, oliver at least had his delusions based on science he misunderstood. laviolette gets his info from codes in the stars left by an advanced race.....
draa
5 / 5 (1) Aug 30, 2012
"Supermassive core star"?
Oliver Manuel, Ph.D., Chief Investigator for Apollo? Is that you?


Is Oliver still around? He was the worst but at least he tried.

/not a scientist
//just love science and phys.org
Deathclock
3.3 / 5 (14) Aug 30, 2012
Search-
'A Blind Man in a Dark Room Looking for a Black hole that isn't There'
Brian Schmidt et al. authored the paper Formation of the Black Hole in Nova Scorpii, The Astrophysical Journal, 567:491-502, 2002 March 1.

Reality is much different than what most astrophysicists would like you to "believe"!


I'm sure you know better...

FYI, we predicted the observations that we would make if black holes existed PRIOR to actually making those observations. When theoretical physics can predict something that we later discover it's pretty goddamn good evidence that we are on the right track.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (9) Aug 30, 2012
Search-
'A Blind Man in a Dark Room Looking for a Black hole that isn't There'
Brian Schmidt et al. authored the paper Formation of the Black Hole in Nova Scorpii, The Astrophysical Journal, 567:491-502, 2002 March 1.

Reality is much different than what most astrophysicists would like you to "believe"!


I'm sure you know better...

FYI, we predicted the observations that we would make if black holes existed PRIOR to actually making those observations. When theoretical physics can predict something that we later discover it's pretty goddamn good evidence that we are on the right track.

Obviously you didn't read the article.

"It is important to understand that while a theory may permit observations, those observations do not necessarily verify the theory." Anon
vidyunmaya
1 / 5 (8) Aug 30, 2012
Sub: Mis-concepts and mis-leads
In the absence of Universe Modeling, origins Cosmology vedas, everything looks lie a black-hole -a misnomer.
Plasma regulated Electromagnetic phenomena in magnetic Field environment -holds the keys-See my books.
Vidyardhi nanduri [Cosmology Studies-Independant Research]
Create Wisdom-Cosmology Chairs-East West Interaction
triplehelix
1 / 5 (4) Aug 30, 2012
"It is important to understand that while a theory may permit observations, those observations do not necessarily verify the theory."


A scientific theory is an explanative tool that is formed through a collection of facts, laws, and observations, that all "symbiotically" function together.

Regardless of a theory, an observation can be made, so no, theories don't allow observations.

We observed the sun appearing and dissapearing before having our theory of planetary movement around the sun.

The observations comes first usually. However, with our large body of knowledge you can make predictive observations. If you then see that prediction repeatedly and consistently, you have a large confidence in your findings and employ it into the current theory or update it.
antialias_physorg
5 / 5 (6) Aug 30, 2012
"It is important to understand that while a theory may permit observations, those observations do not necessarily verify the theory." Anon

You can't verify a theory only falsify it. But when you make (new!) observations consistent with a theory it strengthens that theory (except in the case where EVERY theory out there makes the same prediction - ONLY in that case do you get absolutely no change in the status quo)

The observations comes first usually.

But those kinds of theories that are fit to previous observations aren't very strong (e.g. from the observation of thunder you can fit the theory of "thunder gods". A perfect theory but not very strong since it holds no predictive value.). Theories only really become strong when they make predictions on as of then unobserved phenomena.
triplehelix
1 / 5 (3) Aug 30, 2012
But those kinds of theories that are fit to previous observations aren't very strong (e.g. from the observation of thunder you can fit the theory of "thunder gods". A perfect theory but not very strong since it holds no predictive value.). Theories only really become strong when they make predictions on as of then unobserved phenomena


Yes I agree, theories are only useful when one can extrapolate from them or have explanative or predictive power, that is a scientific theory by definition. My issue was with the Anon quote. It was suggesting a theory is required to make the observations. An observation is first made, then the theory, to explain that observation, which has predictive and repeatable and demonstrable qualities.

Observations don't nessecarily cause a "thunger god" issue. It's peoples lack of understanding that caused that. We observe new things today and give them a scientific basis (the sane ones of our race).
Shelgeyr
1 / 5 (6) Aug 30, 2012
It is good they included the term "candidates" in the article, i.e. as in having discovered "black hole candidates". To be honest, they should have also used "candidates" as the last word in the headline as well.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (9) Aug 30, 2012
"It is important to understand that while a theory may permit observations, those observations do not necessarily verify the theory." Anon

You can't verify a theory only falsify it. But when you make (new!) observations consistent with a theory it strengthens that theory (except in the case where EVERY theory out there makes the same prediction - ONLY in that case do you get absolutely no change in the status quo)

The observations comes first usually.

But those kinds of theories that are fit to previous observations aren't very strong (e.g. from the observation of thunder you can fit the theory of "thunder gods". A perfect theory but not very strong since it holds no predictive value.). Theories only really become strong when they make predictions on as of then unobserved phenomena.

One of the biggest flaws of the standard theory is a lot of it is un-falsifiable. Hence, we now have dark matter/energy, infinite mass zero volume point sources and so on
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (9) Aug 30, 2012
A scientific theory is an explanative tool that is formed through a collection of facts, laws, and observations, that all "symbiotically" function together.

Regardless of a theory, an observation can be made, so no, theories don't allow observations.

We observed the sun appearing and dissapearing before having our theory of planetary movement around the sun.

The observations comes first usually. However, with our large body of knowledge you can make predictive observations. If you then see that prediction repeatedly and consistently, you have a large confidence in your findings and employ it into the current theory or update it.

If it were the case that a theory should "symbiotically" function together, then why are we still talking about 16th century Relativity? This theory and most of it's offshoots that comprise the "standard theory" violate any number of laws and don't match our observations without inventing unfalsifiable hypothetical entities such as dark matter, etc..
Deathclock
3.3 / 5 (12) Aug 30, 2012
One of the biggest flaws of the standard theory is a lot of it is un-falsifiable. Hence, we now have dark matter/energy, infinite mass zero volume point sources...


The biggest problem is your lack of understanding. Dark matter/energy is a STAND IN... these are ill-defined and only serve to represent observations that have no current explanation, anyone relevant to the study of these things understands this.

No one thinks black holes have infinite mass and zero volume... They have both finite mass and finite volume. Want proof? Gravitational attraction is given by (G*m1*m2)/r^2 where G is the gravitational constant, m1/m2 are the masses of the two objects, and r is the distance between the center of mass of each object. If black holes had infinite mass the gravitational attraction between a black hole and ANY OTHER OBJECT IN THE UNIVERSE would be infinite... and everything would immediately be sucked into one giant black hole.

Now stop commenting on this stuff will you?
Deathclock
3.3 / 5 (12) Aug 30, 2012
If it were the case that a theory should "symbiotically" function together, then why are we still talking about 16th century Relativity?


Because relativity works... ever heard of the gravity probe satellites? The predictions made by both general and special relativity has been verified time and time again and we put these principles into practice every day.

This theory and most of it's offshoots that comprise the "standard theory" violate any number of laws and don't match our observations without inventing unfalsifiable hypothetical entities such as dark matter, etc


You have no idea what the fuck you are talking about. The predictions made by Einstein WRT relativity have been verified and without them your GPS receiver would not function properly.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (11) Aug 30, 2012
Deathclock,
I agree there is no current understanding among the standard theorists, among plasma cosmologists such hypothetical entities need not exist. Being that 99% of the Universe is plasma, and it is defined by the properties of EM, and not the neutral gas and dust affected only by gravity that the standard theory implies, it should be plain to see why the standard theory falls short and needs to invent such entities to save the theory from the dustbin of history from which epicycles and flat-earth reside.

So, now you are claiming that black holes don't have Schwarzchild radii or gravitational singularities? Both of which are described MATHEMATICALLY with infinite terms. Also, being that we cannot seem to identify precisely the actual mass of a kilogram (space is not a perfect vacuum), it seems possible to me that the use of an unknown mass will render the solution to be false.

Now take your toys and go away!

http://phys.org/n...ram.html
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (10) Aug 30, 2012
Deathclock,
Alleged Time Dilation is often cited as conclusive evidence for General Relativity, but caution is urged before accepting interpretations of tenuous evidence in this regard.

When NASA put atomic clocks on aircraft and on the space shuttle, they claim to have observed time dilation. However, these results have been contested by Dr. A. G. Kelly who examined the raw data. According to him, the final published outcome had to be averaged in a biased way in order to claim such a high degree of precision.

Also, Louis Essen, the inventor of the atomic clock, published an article in which he discussed the inadequate accuracy of the experiments.

Some even claim that GPS satellites are adjusted for time dilation, but this simply isn't true. It's more urban myth than reality. Check out this interesting web site anti-relativity.com/
Deathclock
3 / 5 (10) Aug 30, 2012
Some even claim that GPS satellites are adjusted for time dilation, but this simply isn't true. It's more urban myth than reality. Check out this interesting web site anti-relativity.com/


...and the results of Gravity Probe B, that's all a conspiracy as well?

You're a loon... what is your agenda? You clearly have ulterior motives to wholesale reject all of modern physics, which has done so much for us and has been put to practical application time and time again.
cantdrive85
1.4 / 5 (9) Aug 30, 2012
H.F. Fliegel and R. S. DiEsposti of the GPS Joint Program Office of the Aerospace Corporation conclude1 "Except for the leading γ [gamma] factor [in their final equation], it is the same formula
derived in classical physics for the signal travel time from the GPS satellite to the ground station. As we have shown, introducing the γ factor makes a change of only 2 or 3 millimeters to the classical result. In short there are no 'missing relativity terms.' They cancel out." General Relativity Theory is not needed.

Here is an interesting article on your probe;
http://spectrum.i...-bailout

As it mentions in this article, " Bob Kahn, of Stanford, told IEEE Spectrum via e-mail, a recent breakthrough in the modeling of behavior of the satellite's instruments has increased the data's accuracy "by a factor of 5 to 10"."

As it says, "MODELING", such is the M.O. of modern cosmology, "model" the data to determine the expected results.
Deathclock
2.5 / 5 (8) Aug 30, 2012
I could, if I didn't have anything better to do than entertain your delusions, provide HUNDREDS of links to articles detailing the role of general relativity in the global positioning system, but I assume you are capable of typing "relativity GPS" into google and reading them yourself... for every source you can find that says the opposite I can find two dozen that say you are wrong, and I am quite sure mine will be from more trustworthy sources as well.
Deathclock
2.1 / 5 (7) Aug 30, 2012
Oh, and here is a pretty hilarious thread from the anti-relativity link you provided... the commentators DESTROY the arguments of the author, repeatedly...

http://www.anti-r...p;t=6204
cantdrive85
1.6 / 5 (7) Aug 30, 2012
That's great, I myself will take into account the POV of two of the men who are in fact involved in the actual program, being they have first hand knowledge of the operation of the satellites.

The power of group think is very restrictive to finding the truth, and we should all remember that science is not an exercise in the democratic process, just because most of the people believe something to be so, by no means gives more credence to a theory.

Your statement that, "You clearly have ulterior motives to wholesale reject all of modern physics." is a strawman argument. Modern physics has a much clearer understanding of plasma physics and the EM force than it did when the standard theory was largely formulated over 100 years ago. It is in fact my desire for modern physicists to reconcile their beliefs of the theoretical sciences to better reflect our modern understanding of all branches of physics, but plasma physics in particular being that 99% of the Universe consists of the stuff.
Deathclock
2.8 / 5 (9) Aug 30, 2012
Yeah, that's great, but you've demonstrated that you have no idea what plasma is either, in this thread:

http://phys.org/n...ies.html

As AA had to inform you, electricity flowing through a copper wire does not make that copper wire a plasma...
Q-Star
2.7 / 5 (7) Aug 30, 2012
laviolette gets his info from codes in the stars left by an advanced race.....


You may be on to a fundamental truth. Laviolette probably hates black holes because they are interfering with his codes and messages. While investigating what was happening to his codes, he probably discovered that an advanced race was impersonating black holes in order to keep us inferior races from deciphering the secrete codes.
ValeriaT
1 / 5 (2) Aug 30, 2012
It's not new finding for those, who are familiar with infrared surveys.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (5) Aug 30, 2012
Deathclock,
Anthony Peratt of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, one of the leading plasma physicists on the planet, and pupil of Nobel Laureate Hannes Alfven, describes plasma this way. From his website...

Plasmas are common in nature and found nearly everywhere. For instance, stars are predominantly plasma as are most space and astrophysical objects. However, plasmas are also found on Earth where they find a wide range of uses.

All of the following are examples where plasmas are to be found:

Lightning!
The Sun—from Core to Corona
Fluorescent Lights and Neon Signs
Nebulae - Luminous Clouds in Space
The Solar Wind
Primordial Fusion during the evolution of the Universe
Magnetic Confinement Fusion Plasmas
Inertially Confined Fusion Plasmas
Flames as Plasmas*
Auroras - the Northern and Southern Lights
Interstellar Space - it's not empty, it's a plasma!
Quasars, Radiogalaxies, and Galaxies—they emit plasma radiation and microwaves
Cont...
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (5) Aug 30, 2012
cont...
Large Scale Structures of Galaxies—their filamentary and magnetized!
Dense Solid State Matter—when shocked by nuclear explosion or earthquakes, emit both light and radio emission.
*Ordinary flames and fire is a plasma, albeit a strongly interacting, collision-dominated plasma with diminished collective effects. These are examples of "strongly interacting plasmas" where the Coulomb interaction energy (distance between particles) is larger than the thermal energy (temperature). This leads to a small (often less than one) number of particles in a Debye sphere. This changes the physics of the beast, but it is still called a plasma. For example, instead of small angle collisions dominating transport that can be modeled with a Fokker-Planck equation, one must use the full Boltzman equation description. For example, a metal is in many respects a plasma, yet conventional definitions breakdown.

According to Mr. Peratt, that copper wire could just as well be called a plasma.
Deathclock
1.8 / 5 (5) Aug 30, 2012
Deathclock,
Anthony Peratt of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, one of the leading plasma physicists on the planet, and pupil of Nobel Laureate Hannes Alfven, describes plasma this way. From his website...

Plasmas are common in nature and found nearly everywhere. For instance, stars are predominantly plasma as are most space and astrophysical objects. However, plasmas are also found on Earth where they find a wide range of uses.


Yes... I know all this, this is all correct... and it has nothing at all to do with the incorrect statements you have made. Are you attempting to drown your opposition in meaningless information that doesn't have anything to do with the topic at hand? You made incorrect statements re plasma, so you post a bunch of factual information about it that has nothing to do with the incorrect statements you made... master troll or can't follow a conversation? You decide...
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (5) Aug 31, 2012
"one must use the full Boltzman equation description. For example, a metal is in many respects a plasma, yet conventional definitions breakdown."

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