Experts reveal how plants don't get sunburn

Feb 10, 2012

(PhysOrg.com) -- Experts at the University of Glasgow have discovered how plants survive the harmful rays of the sun.

UV-B wavelengths are the most powerful part of the daylight spectrum and are potentially damaging both to humans and plants.  However, plants rarely show signs of damage because they have evolved a way of protecting themselves from the sun’s harmful rays by making their own chemical sunscreen in their leaves.  Last year, the group of scientists discovered that a protein called UVR8 detects the presence of UV-B and initiates the process of protection.

Now a paper published today in Science, reveals more details of the molecular structure of the protein UVR8 and explains how it senses UV-B light.

UVR8 is a ‘photoreceptor’ – a light detecting protein. Organisms use photoreceptors to sense particular regions of the daylight spectrum. For instance, vertebrates have photoreceptors for vision and plants have photoreceptors that direct their growth towards a light source and trigger when they flower.

The Glasgow group and their collaborators have found that UVR8 is a completely new type of photoreceptor in organisms, because it does not use an additional, bound small molecule to act as the light sensor. All known photoreceptors consist of proteins with attached ‘chromophores’ that sense light of particular wavelengths. Instead, UVR8 employs specific tryptophan in its own structure to detect UV-B light. These amino acids very effectively sense UV-B.

The research was undertaken jointly between scientists at the University of Glasgow and at The Scripps Research Institute in California. Gareth Jenkins, Professor of Plant Cell and Molecular Biology at the University of Glasgow and co-author on the paper, described the paper’s findings as “groundbreaking”.

“The search for this UV-B photoreceptor was something of a Holy Grail for plant photobiologists and we were very pleased last year when we discovered that UVR8 was the UV-B photoreceptor. Now, with our collaborators we have found that UVR8 detects UV-B by an entirely novel mechanism” says Professor Jenkins.

Normally in plants two molecules of UVR8 associate to form what is called a dimer. UV-B converts the dimer into single molecules of UVR8, called monomers, which are then active in the cell. The paper shows the molecular structure of the UVR8 protein, which resembles a propeller with 7 blades. The two molecules of UVR8 that form the dimer are held together through the attraction of positively and negatively charged amino acids on one surface, rather like two adjacent batteries. UV-B is detected by a small group of tryptophan amino acids located adjacent to the charged amino acids. The activation of the tryptophans by UV-B causes the charged amino acids to break apart and the two UVR8 molecules to separate, forming the active monomers.

This research opens up new directions for understanding how respond to UV-B and provides new insights into the ways organisms detect their environment.

Explore further: Earliest stages of ear development involve a localized signaling cascade

More information: Paper online: www.sciencemag.org/content/332/6025/103.full

Provided by University of Glasgow

4.8 /5 (6 votes)

Related Stories

Experts reveal why plants don't get sunburn

Apr 01, 2011

(PhysOrg.com) -- Experts at the University of Glasgow have discovered how plants know when to make their own sunscreen to protect themselves from the harmful rays of the sun. Scientists have speculated for decades that plants ...

Early suntan helps lettuce crops

Aug 08, 2011

New Zealand’s intense ultraviolet light may be bad for the skin, but it could provide a boost for vegetable production, according to new research by a Massey University crop scientist.

Researchers id new class of photoreceptors

Apr 22, 2008

The identification of a new class of photoreceptors in the retina of fruit flies sheds light on the regulation of the pigments of the eye that confer color vision, researchers at New York University’s Center for Developmental ...

UV light controls antibodies, improves biosensors

Oct 31, 2011

From detecting pathogens in blood samples to the study of protein synthesis, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensors have many uses in modern biology. In this technique, antibodies anchored to gold electrodes ...

Recommended for you

Genomes of malaria-carrying mosquitoes sequenced

22 hours ago

Nora Besansky, O'Hara Professor of Biological Sciences at the University of Notre Dame and a member of the University's Eck Institute for Global Health, has led an international team of scientists in sequencing ...

How calcium regulates mitochondrial carrier proteins

Nov 26, 2014

Mitochondrial carriers are a family of proteins that play the key role of transporting a chemically diverse range of molecules across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carriers are part of ...

Team conducts unprecedented analysis of microbial ecosystem

Nov 26, 2014

An international team of scientists from the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen) and The Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB) have completed a first-of-its-kind microbial analysis of a biological ...

Students create microbe to weaken superbug

Nov 25, 2014

A team of undergraduate students from the University of Waterloo have designed a synthetic organism that may one day help doctors treat MRSA, an antibiotic-resistant superbug.

User comments : 0

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.