Millions of molecules screened in search for the ideal organic solar cell material

Sep 12, 2011 by Lisa Zyga feature
By screening millions of molecules, researchers hope that the Clean Energy Project will identify a material that can be used to fabricate organic solar cells that have an efficiency of 10-15% and a lifetime of more than 10 years - properties that would make organic solar cells cost-competitive with other energy sources. Image credit: Hachmann, et al. ©2011 American Chemical Society

(PhysOrg.com) -- Currently, the cost of electricity from commercial silicon solar cells is about 10 times higher than the cost of utility-scale electricity. In order to make solar cells cost-competitive with currently available energy sources, some researchers are looking to organic materials. Not only are organic materials less expensive than inorganic materials like silicon, but they’re also non-hazardous, lightweight, easily processed, and can be made semi-transparent and molded into almost any shape. The problem is there are literally millions of organic materials to choose from, and identifying those few that have the best optical and electronic properties is extremely challenging.

To address this problem, a team of researchers from Harvard University, the National Autonomous University of Mexico, and Haverford College in Haverford, Pennsylvania, has developed an extremely large-scale automated computational screening method to study potential molecular structures for organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs). They introduced the initiative, called the Harvard Clean Energy Project (CEP), http://cleanenergy.harvard.edu/ in a recent issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters where they present some early results, with more studies to follow.

CEP’s overall goal is to identify an that can increase the efficiency of OPVs from the current record of 9.2% to 10-15%, as well as expand the currently limited lifetimes to more than 10 years. A solar cell with these two features could push the power generation costs of organic solar cells below that of other currently available .

To achieve this goal, the project has taken a highly collaborative approach. It relies on input and feedback from experimentalists from Zhenan Bao’s group at Stanford and other research groups. To analyze the large number of molecules, the project combines conventional modeling strategies with strategies from modern drug discovery, along with ideas from machine learning, pattern recognition, and cheminformatics. Also, the project utilizes volunteer computing by IBM’s World Community Grid (WCG) to supply part of the large-scale computational power. Volunteers who would like to donate computer time can download a free and virus-free program from the IBM website that uses their computers for screening the materials while their computer is idle.

“Roughly, every 12 hours of donated free CPU time will result in a new molecule added to our database of candidate organic materials for solar cells,” Alán Aspuru-Guzik of Havard, who is one of the project’s leaders, told PhysOrg.com. “The database will aid scientists in accelerating the discovery of novel solar materials.”

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With traditional approaches to analyzing and characterizing materials, researchers typically rely on their past experiences with certain materials and their own empirical intuition. Due to the long time required for synthesis and characterization, only a few examples can be experimentally studied per year. In contrast, CEP can characterize thousands of molecules per day, and the CEP library already contains about 10 million molecular motifs of potential interest.

“The great variety in properties found in our candidate library is quite remarkable, as is the small parameter space that makes for promising OPVs and that has to be hit,” said Johannes Hachmann of Harvard, another of the project’s leaders. “The latter underlines the value of our high-throughput approach.”

Using a calculation hierarchy, the method rates each candidate motif at each step with respect to the desired properties, and expedites further characterization for the most promising candidates. The hierarchy technique is already proving valuable: a preliminary analysis has revealed that only about 0.3% (3,000–5,000) of the screened structures have the necessary energetic levels to realize organic with 10% or higher efficiency. While an unaided search would have a very small chance of identifying these molecules, CEP can move all of the promising candidates forward for additional analysis.

“So far, we have made a proof-of-principle study in collaboration with Zhenan Bao’s group at Stanford,” said Aspuru-Guzik. “We screened eight different variants of a parent compound for organic semiconductors, and this resulted in a compound with an astonishing large hole mobility. This gives us confidence that the type of approach followed in the WCG will yield useful information to the community.”

In addition to searching for molecules with specific structures, the project also gives researchers a better understanding of structure-property relationships of molecules in general. Knowing these design principles will allow scientists to not only improve screening, but also to actively engineer novel organic electronics at a future stage.

“On the one hand, the collection provides on-demand access to specific compounds with a wide range of desired properties and electronic structures for all sorts of applications, not only for OPVs,” Hachmann said. “On the other hand it forms a solid foundation to learn about structure-property relationships. Lastly, it will be a useful resource for theoreticians to assess the performance of different computational methods and can serve as a parameter repository in this chemical space.”

As more technical results arrive, the researchers are building a reference database that will be available to the public by 2012. The data should accelerate the search for optimal OPV materials, and provide valuable data for the development of organic electronics in general. The researchers hope that one day the search will lead to a clean source of electricity that can compete with conventional energy sources, although it’s difficult to predict exactly when that will be.

“In principle, we want the search to last as little as possible,” Aspuru-Guzik said. “Obviously, things are more complicated: It takes human time to catalog and understand the results, as well as to select molecules for further screening. We are in the process of selecting the top candidates of our initial screening and releasing them in a publication. We want to further screen the most promising candidates with more calculations to ascertain and verify their potential as organic solar cell materials.”

To participate and download the client software developed by IBM and Harvard, go to http://cleanenergy.harvard.edu and click “Download.” The website contains video tutorials for the installation.

Explore further: Team pioneers strategy for creating new materials

More information: Johannes Hachmann, et al. “The Harvard Clean Energy Project: Large-Scale Computational Screening and Design of Organic Photovoltaics on the World Community Grid.” The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2011, DOI:10.1021/jz200866s

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antialias_physorg
3.7 / 5 (6) Sep 12, 2011
the project combines conventional modeling strategies with strategies from modern drug discovery,

Probably should mention that before drug companies latched onto this one as a cheap way of maximizing profits by lowering their research costs there was (is) the SETIatHome project.

Volunteers who would like to donate computer time can download a free and virus-free program

(sarcasm) Guess we have to be thankful that it's virus-free (/sarcasm)
Urgelt
3.4 / 5 (5) Sep 12, 2011
So these people solicit vast chunks of donated computer time from the public. And the public gets... what, exactly?

You may be certain that whatever novel compounds emerge from this effort and the processes by which they are applied to solar power generation will be patented. Monopoly pricing will follow, and that will, for many years, prevent higher-efficiency solar panels from achieving the cost efficiency we desperately need to reduce human impact on climate.

The day these guys announce that the fruits of this collaborative effort will be licensed freely to the public is the day the public should donate computer time to them. Otherwise it's just a donation to another Harvard me-first get-richer scheme.
djr
5 / 5 (4) Sep 12, 2011
I wish I knew where they got the information that electricity from solar panels costs 10 times utility costs... The cost curve is coming down - and we are approaching grid parity. Here is just on article supporting this. http://www.bloomb...oom.html

Seems like so much misinformation on the net..

David.
RealScience
5 / 5 (3) Sep 12, 2011
Completely correct, djr!
The 10x number is several years out of date. On sunny islands with diesel generators, PV is already at grid parity. Even compared to coal, PV is only 2.5x coal in very sunny places, and 4x coal in moderately sunny places. And the gap is closing fast.
robbor
5 / 5 (2) Sep 12, 2011
is the cost of air and water pollution and human health factored into the cost of petroleum and coal based electricity, not to mention, subsidies they get from the government.
despinos
4 / 5 (1) Sep 13, 2011
I agree with Urgelt,
Early results should be made license free, at least to those that contributed with CPU time, thus allowing third parties to investigate independently on the most promising (say hundreds) molecules.
ashrader330
4 / 5 (1) Sep 13, 2011
If anybody here would have bothered to go read anything about how the World Community Grid operates you would have found that is a REQUIREMENT that results gained from processing on the World Community Grid are public domain. So that means no company, organization, etc. can claim a patent or copyright on what is developed through the Grid. Please take a few minutes to find out what you are talking about before spreading more nonsense and FUD.
SteveL
5 / 5 (2) Sep 13, 2011
While I don't contribute to any projects specifically on the WCG, members of my team (amdusers.com), thousands of other teams and millions of other people all around the planet contribute to distributed computing projects. My son and I have been volunteering computer time for years now for various science and bio projects. I'm not in a position to do the research, but there is no reason I can't help where possible.
89118a
not rated yet Sep 13, 2011
Back on October 16, 2008 physorg.com published an piece from Ohio State University about their Ohio Supercomputer Center and a project to design a hybrid material, from different molecular configurations for improved solar cell materials.
http://www.physor...037.html

They as well, used a large-scale automated computational screening method to study potential molecular structures. This type of computing should profoundly impact our standard of living with faster/better tools to mold our world.
Caliban
1 / 5 (1) Sep 17, 2011
The problem is that any findings are unlikely to be developed by Joe and Jill WCG- simply because of the common individual's lack of resources, so that the fruits of their contributions will ultimately be developed by Big Pocket Corporations, that will -again- exploit the Commons for their own profit, regardless of any community licensing.

It isn't going to help humanity as a whole -in terms of any dollar savings- if a few thousand or million people get a percentage discount on their power usage, if that power production is controled and priced by a for-profit corporation, since the revenue lost to WCG participants through a community patenting scheme will simply be passed on to non-participating "consumers".

You can't change the for-profit paradigm by being a willing participant in it, much less expect it to yield any real benefit for those it seeks to exploit for gain.

That being said, it would still be better to have a (putatively) more environmentally benign
contd
Caliban
1 / 5 (1) Sep 17, 2011
contd

energy-production technology to replace the fossil-fuel/hydro/nuclear driven one, especially since we pick up ALL the costs of it(environmental, social, economic, political) anyway.

Humpty
2.5 / 5 (2) Sep 19, 2011
"some researchers are looking to organic materials. Not only are organic materials less expensive than inorganic materials like silicon, but theyre also non-hazardous:"

OK lets make them from Ricine and Strychnine - for starters.