Nanorods overcome tigecycline resistance of Klebsiella pneumonia

Long-term and excessive use of antibiotics has caused the spread of antibiotic resistance. The time- and cost-consuming process of new antibiotic development results in the much slower emergence of new antibacterial drugs ...

Microrobots in swarms for medical embolization

Microrobotic agents can form swarms of targeted drug delivery for improved imaging analyses. In a new report now published in Science Advances, Junhui Law and a team of researchers in mechanical and industrial engineering, ...

Turning white blood cells into medicinal microrobots with light

Medicinal microrobots could help physicians better treat and prevent diseases. But most of these devices are made with synthetic materials that trigger immune responses in vivo. Now, for the first time, researchers reporting ...

How to find marker genes in cell clusters

Which genes are specific for a certain cell type, i.e., "mark" their identity? With the increasing size of datasets nowadays, answering this question is often challenging. Often, marker genes are simply genes that have been ...

Supercomputing helps reveal weaknesses in HIV-1 virus

Much remains to be discovered on how the HIV-1 virus infects our cells. Scientists know that it slips past the defenses of our immune system, entering white blood cells to deliver its genetic payload and hijack the cell's ...

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), or leukocytes (also spelled "leucocytes"), are cells of the immune system defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Five different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system.

The number of leukocytes in the blood is often an indicator of disease. There are normally between 4×109 and 1.1×1010 white blood cells in a litre of blood, making up approximately 1% of blood in a healthy adult. An increase in the number of leukocytes over the upper limits is called leukocytosis, and in leukopenia, this number is much lower than the lower limit. The physical properties of leukocytes, such as volume, conductivity, and granularity, may change due to activation, the presence of immature cells, or the presence of malignant leukocytes in leukemia.

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