Delivery system can make RNA vaccines more powerful

Vaccines made from RNA hold great potential as a way to treat cancer or prevent a variety of infectious diseases. Many biotech companies are now working on such vaccines, and a few have gone into clinical trials.

Scientists build chip to analyze health of white blood cells

Scientists from Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (NTU Singapore) have developed a lab-on-a-chip system that can identify the health aspects of a person's immune system from a drop of their blood, within minutes.

Study shows interactions between bacteria and parasites

A team at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) has completed the first study of the effects of a simultaneous infection with blood flukes (schistosomes) and the bacterium Helicobacter pylori—a fairly common occurrence ...

Sweet success of parasite survival could also be its downfall

University of York scientists from the Department of Chemistry are part of an international team which has discovered how a parasite responsible for spreading a serious tropical disease protects itself from starvation once ...

How new loops in DNA packaging help us make diverse antibodies

Diversity is good, especially when it comes to antibodies. It's long been known that a gene assembly process called V(D)J recombination allows our immune system to mix and match bits of genetic code, generating new antibodies ...

Study answers longstanding cell-development riddle

During the lifetime of a body—whether human, fish or any other type of vertebrate—cells die, making room for fresh new cells to carry on vital processes. The dead cells must be cleared away, though, and debris removal ...

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), or leukocytes (also spelled "leucocytes"), are cells of the immune system defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Five different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system.

The number of leukocytes in the blood is often an indicator of disease. There are normally between 4×109 and 1.1×1010 white blood cells in a litre of blood, making up approximately 1% of blood in a healthy adult. An increase in the number of leukocytes over the upper limits is called leukocytosis, and in leukopenia, this number is much lower than the lower limit. The physical properties of leukocytes, such as volume, conductivity, and granularity, may change due to activation, the presence of immature cells, or the presence of malignant leukocytes in leukemia.

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