Related topics: protein

Mapping enzyme catalysis with metabolic sensing

Enzymes maintain a range of protein sequences and diverse structural forms with activities that far exceed the best chemical catalysts. However, research on engineering them with new and improved features are limited due ...

Probing proteins in single cells

Different cells make different proteins, and knowledge of these differences could greatly enhance scientists' understanding of the roles of individual cells in healthy tissues and in disease. But obtaining enough protein ...

New technique provides detailed information on nuclear material

Whether soil contaminated with nuclear material or archaeological finds: Analyzing isotopes can help determining the age and origin of a sample very accurately. Researchers from Leibniz University Hannover (LUH) and Johannes ...

New tool can identify harmful blue-green algae

A new way to detect early signs of harmful blue-green algae, which bloom in lakes, rivers and reservoirs around the world, has been developed by researchers at the University of Birmingham together with researchers at the ...

Artificial intelligence helps to find new natural substances

More than a third of all medicines available today are based on active substances from nature, and a research team from the University of Jena has developed a procedure to identify small active substance molecules much more ...

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Mass spectrometry

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique for the determination of the elemental composition of a sample or molecule. It is also used for elucidating the chemical structures of molecules, such as peptides and other chemical compounds. The MS principle consists of ionizing chemical compounds to generate charged molecules or molecule fragments and measurement of their mass-to-charge ratios. In a typical MS procedure:

MS instruments consist of three modules: an ion source, which can convert gas phase sample molecules into ions (or, in the case of electrospray ionization, move ions that exist in solution into the gas phase); a mass analyzer, which sorts the ions by their masses by applying electromagnetic fields; and a detector, which measures the value of an indicator quantity and thus provides data for calculating the abundances of each ion present. The technique has both qualitative and quantitative uses. These include identifying unknown compounds, determining the isotopic composition of elements in a molecule, and determining the structure of a compound by observing its fragmentation. Other uses include quantifying the amount of a compound in a sample or studying the fundamentals of gas phase ion chemistry (the chemistry of ions and neutrals in a vacuum). MS is now in very common use in analytical laboratories that study physical, chemical, or biological properties of a great variety of compounds.

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