Related topics: cells · organic molecules

Elucidating the process of bile duct formation in the liver

Bile ducts are pathways that carry hepatocyte-produced bile from the liver to the small intestine. In the human fetal liver, bile ducts are formed from bile duct epithelial cells surrounding the portal vein, and hepatocytes ...

Converting PFAS 'forever chemicals' into valuable compounds

Commonly known as "forever chemicals," PFAS are notorious for persisting in the environment and in our bodies. Osaka Metropolitan University chemists may put an end to the "forever" life of PFAS with their simple yet innovative ...

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Ligand

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (see also: functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex. The bonding between metal and ligand generally involves formal donation of one or more of the ligand's electron pairs. The nature of metal-ligand bonding can range from covalent to ionic. Furthermore, the metal-ligand bond order can range from one to three. Ligands are viewed as Lewis bases, although rare cases are known involving Lewis acidic "ligands."

Metal and metalloids are bound to ligands in virtually all circumstances, although gaseous "naked" metal ions can be generated in high vacuum. Ligands in a complex dictate the reactivity of the central atom, including ligand substitution rates, the reactivity of the ligands themselves, and redox. Ligand selection is a critical consideration in many practical areas, including bioinorganic and medicinal chemistry, homogeneous catalysis, and environmental chemistry.

Ligands are classified in many ways: their charge, their size (bulk), the identity of the coordinating atom(s), and the number of electrons donated to the metal (denticity or hapticity). The size of a ligand is indicated by its cone angle.

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